The Human Body: An Orientation

jlestrada0912
Flashcards by jlestrada0912, updated more than 1 year ago
jlestrada0912
Created by jlestrada0912 over 5 years ago
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Chapter 1

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Anatomy Studies the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another
Physiology Concerns the function of the body, in other words, how the body parts work and carry out their life-sustaining activities
Macroscopic Anatomy (Gross) The study of large body structures visible to the naked eye, such as the heart, lungs, and kidneys.
Regional Anatomy All the structures (muscles, bones, blood vessels, nerves, etc.) in a particular region of the body, such as the abdomen or leg, are examined at the same time.
Systemic Anatomy The body structure is studied system by system
Surface Anatomy The study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface
Microscopic Anatomy Deals with structures too small to be seen with the naked eye
Cytology The study of cells of the body
Histology The study of tissues
Developmental Anatomy Traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span
Embryology A subdivision of developmental anatomy, concerns developmental changes that occur before birth
Pathological Anatomy Studies structural changes caused by disease
Radiographic Anatomy Studies internal structures as visualized by X-ray images or specialized scanning procedures
Renal Physiology Concerns kidney function and urine production
Cardiovascular Physiology Examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels
Neurophysiology Explains the workings of the nervous system
Principle of Complementarity of Structure and Function Function always reflects structure. That is, what the structure can do depends on its specific form.
Levels of Structural Organization 1. Chemical level 2. Cellular level 3. Tissue level 4. Organ level 5. Organ System level 6. Organismal level
Chemical Level The simplest level of the structural hierarchy. At this level, atoms, tiny building blocks of matter, combine to form molecules such as water and proteins.
Cellular Level Cells are the smallest unites of living things and makeup the cellular level of the hierarchy.
Tissue Level Human beings are complex organisms that fall into the tissue level of the hierarchy. Tissues are groups of similar cells that have a common function.
Four Basic Types of Tissue in the Human Body 1. Epithelium 2. Muscle 3. Connective Tissue 4. Nervous Tissue
Organ Level This level is where extremely complex functions become possible.
Organ System Level Organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose make up an organ system.
Organismal Level The highest level of organization is the organism, the living human being. This level represents the sum total of all structural levels working together to keep us alive.
Digestive System Takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and eliminates unabsorbed matter (feces)
Respiratory System Takes in oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide
Cardiovascular System Via the blood, distributes oxygen and nutrients to all body cells and delivers wastes and carbon dioxide to disposal organs
Urinary System Eliminates nitrogenous wastes and excess ions
Integumentary System Protects the body as a whole from external environment
Maintaining Boundaries Every living organism must maintain its boundaries so that its internal environment (it's inside) remains distinct from the external environment surrounding it (it's outside)
Movement Movement includes the activities promoted by the muscular system, such as propelling ourselves from one place to another
Responsiveness Also known as, excitability, is the ability to sense changes (which serve as stimuli) in the environment and then respond to them
Digestion Digestion is the breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood.
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