Ch. 2 Ancient Mesopotamia & Egypt

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Ch. 2 Words and Definiton's
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Mesopotamia (Section 1) "land between the rivers" ; located in the region known as the Fertile Crescent
Sumerians the creators of the first Mesopotamian civilization.
Polytheistic religion ; belief in many gods.
Ziggurats in Ancient Mesopotamia a rectangular stepped tower ; sometimes surmounted by a temple.
Theocracy a government by a divine authority.
Cuneiform "wedge-shaped" system of writing.
Hammurabi's Law Code a Babylonian legal code of the 18th century BC, instituted by Hammurabi and dealing with criminal and civil matters.
Patriarchal men dominated the society.
Nile River (Section 2) begins in the heart of Africa and courses north ward for more than 40,000 miles. It is the longest river in the world.
Inundation annual flooding of the Nile River.
Cataracts waterfalls along the Nile River.
King Menes he united Upper and Lower Egypt into a single kingdom and created the first royal dynasty.
Dynasty a family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family.
Pharaoh originally meaning "great house" or "palace".
Vizier the steward of the whole land.
Silt rich, black soil left behind by the yearly flood.
"Ba" the Ba was the part of the soul that embarked on a journey to follow the gods; the symbol of the Ba is often shown as a bird with a human head and wings.
"Ka" ancient Egyptians thought that when someone died the Ka, or the life force, left the physical body; The Ka could drink and eat, but was stuck in the tomb in the body of the mummy or the small statues that were left in the tomb.
Mummification to make a dead body into a mummy, as by embalming and drying.
Canopic Jars a covered urn used in ancient Egyptian burials to hold the entrails from an embalmed body.
Saracophagus a stone coffin, typically adorned with a scultpture or inscription and associated with the ancient civilization of Egypt, Rome, and Greece.
The Great Pyramid a massive monument with a square base and four triangular sides.
King Khufu's boat discovered in 1952 buried under the Great Pyramid; it would be needed to ferry King Khufu's spirit across the sky to be with Ra, the sun god.
Great Sphinx a figure of an imaginary creature having the head of a man or an animal and the body of a lion.
Hieroglyphics enigmatic or incomprehensimble symbols or writing; writing consisting of hieroglypics.
The Rosetta Stone a stone with writing on it in two languages (Egyptian and Greek), using three scripts (hieroglyphic, demotic, and Greek)
Hyksos invaded Egypt; and ruled for 200 years; introduced the horse drawn chariot.
Hatshepsut first great woman ruler in history; she ruled Egypt as king not queen. Sculptures and masks show her with a false beard.
Akhenaten rejected the traditional religion in favor of worshiping the Aten, or sun disc, after whom he renamed himself. He closed all the temples to the old gods and obliterated their names from monuments.
King Tut (Tutankhamen) 17 year old boy pharaoh whose tomb survived untouched by grave robbers; more than 3,000 artifacts discovered in his tomb.
Ramses II Ramses the Great reigned 67 years; fathered over 100 children; defeated the Hittites, the other superpower of ancient times; he declared himself a living god.
Papyrus reed like plant that grows on the Nile River Ancient Egyptians used to write on.
Cultural diffusion the spreading of ideas from one culture to another culture.
Fertile Crescent the region in the Middle East which curves, like a quarter-moon shape; Known as the Cradle of Civilization.
King Khufu Cheops earned everlasting fame for being the pharaoh responsible for the Great Pyramid at Giza which he built to serve as his tomb.
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