Unit 2 Learning

Saskia Wellstead
Flashcards by Saskia Wellstead , updated more than 1 year ago
Saskia Wellstead
Created by Saskia Wellstead over 5 years ago


GCSE Psychology Flashcards on Unit 2 Learning, created by Saskia Wellstead on 09/27/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Learning A relatively permanent change in behaviour that is due to some experience
Classical Conditioning The learned association between stimulus and a response
Unconditional Response (UCR) Behaviour over which one has no control; it's automatic
Unconditional Stimulus (UCS) Anything that causes a UCR
Conditional Stimulus (CS) The stimulus that is presented with UCS
Conditional Response (CR) The response that occurs when CS is present
Neutral Stimulus (NS) A stimulus that initially produces no specific response other than to focus attention. In Classical Conditioning when used with a UCS, the NS becomes a CS
Positive Reinforcement Leads to behaviour that is repeated because the consequences have been positive and the individual finds it rewarding
Negative Reinforcement Takes place when our behaviour stops something nasty happening
Punishment A consequence that weakens behaviour (makes it less likely to happen again)
Classical Conditioning- Pavlov's Dogs Aim: Pavlov was not intending to study conditioning Method: He presented food in a bowl to a dog several times, in the end the dog salivated even when the bowl was empty. the dog had been conditioned to salivate. Taking it further Pavlov rang a bell when giving the food Results: After several times, the dog salivated to the bell Conclusion: Over time the dogs learned to salivate when the bell was ringing. Because of this whenever the stimuli was present the response was given
Evaluation - Pavlov's Dogs - You cannot generalise Humans with dogs + Lots of real life examples of conditioned humans - Passive learners can do something after one go - Lacks ethical consideration
Pavlov's Proposals - Extinction When the conditioned stimulus no longer triggers the response
Pavlov's Proposals - Spontaneous Recovery The behaviour may be extinct but is not forgotten
Pavlov's Proposals - Generalisation When the response is triggered by something similar to the original stimulus
Pavlov's Proposals - Discrimination The animal can learn not to generalise
Classical Conditioning - Watson & Raynor (1920) Little Albert Aim: To see if it was possible to condition somebody to become phobic using the principles of CC Method: Albert, 11 mo orphan, was given a rat to play with. A bar then made a loud noise above his head that scared him. This was done several times Results: The researcher then stopped hitting the bar but still gave him a white rat. Albert was frightened and tried to crawl away and cry Conclusion: Albert had learned to associate the rat with the loud bar that created a fear response. He learnt this through CC
Evaluation - Little Albert - Ethics - Albert was unprotected and they never unconditioned him - Validity - There was no control group so it could have just have been exposure to strange creatures - Reliability - There was only one participant
Operant Conditioning - Learning through operating with the environment - If we do something and it brings a pleasant consequence then we are more likely to do it again - If there is an unpleasant consequence then we are less likely to do it again
Rewards Intrinsic Reward - Non-Physical Extrinsic Reward - Physical
Law Of Effect + Pleasant consequences get 'Stamped in' - Unpleasant consequences get 'Stamped Out'
Operant Conditioning - Skinner's Rats - An animal inside a box and a lever or key that could deliver food. The animals became quicker at pressing the lever as they knew a reward would come - Skinner concluded that behaviour can be shaped and maintained by it's consequences - Skinner tried varying his research. Sometimes the rat would receive a shock and sometimes there was no food
Reinforcement - Primary Reinforcement - Anything that satisfies a basic human need - Secondary Reinforcement - Pleasant Rewards e.g. money - Vicarious Reinforcement - Reinforcing behaviour by observing others getting praise or a reward
Behaviour Shaping Reinforcement can be used to create new behaviour by shaping random behaviour and building up a sequence
Punishment - Any consequence that weakens behaviour - Skinner believed it has a limited effect - Better to reward right behaviour than punish the bad
Evaluation - Operant Conditioning - Individual Differences - People learn without consequences + Proven to work - Has to be consistent to work + Way society works +Eventually learn to do it
Phobias 'An intense, persistent & irrational fear of something which is accompanied by a compelling desire to avoid and escape'
Overcoming Phobias - Classical Conditioning Systematic Desensitisation - The person is exposed gradually to the feared stimulus in the hopes of causing extinction - Hierarchy of Fear - Relaxation techniques with the hierarchy - Don't move on a stage until ready
Evaluation - Systematic Desensitisation - Could take time (years) - Could Backfire + Generally successful for treating phobias of animals / objects + Few ethical concerns as patient actively involved + More suitable for use with children than other methods - Expensive - Patient could suffer panic or heart attack
Overcoming Phobias - Classical Conditioning Implosion & Flooding - Idea that you can't maintain the fear response - A phobic is exposed to their fear & creates an intense fear response - The phobic cannot escape - Over time the response becomes exhausted
Evaluation - Implosion & Flooding + Consent is needed - Right to withdraw is taken - Could reinforce phobia + Technique is mostly successful + Cheaper than desensitisation - Only works on specific phobias
Overcoming Phobias - Classical Conditioning Aversion Therapy Classical conditioning that shows behaviour is unpleasant e.g Alcohol -An alcoholic is given a drug that causes nausea -Then given the drug & an alcoholic drink -Pairing occurs several times so the alcohol is associated with nausea
Evaluation - Aversion Therapy - Reduces rather than erases + Clearly - understandable theoretical explanation + No more ethical issues than other methods - There are still ethical issues - Client may feel unduly pressured to accept - Only used to eradicate undesirable behaviour + Generally works with alcoholics - Generalisation may occur
Overcoming Phobias - Operant Conditioning Token Economy - Behaviour shaping - Behaviour is rewarded with tokens that can be exchanged for something the individual wants
Evaluation - Token Economy - Can be used on vulnerable people - People come to expect rewards
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