Astronomy Final Exam

Cassie Davis
Flashcards by Cassie Davis, updated more than 1 year ago
Cassie Davis
Created by Cassie Davis over 5 years ago
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Trying to not fail my astro 1010 exam

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Question Answer
The pictures below show the paths of stars looking in different directions from different places on Earth; arrows indicate the direction of the apparent motions of the stars. What picture represents the view looking east from a location north of the equator but south of the North Pole. 1
The figure below shows the Earth's orbital positions on the first days of spring, autumn, summer, and winter. North is up and the Earth orbits counterclockwise. Arrows from the Sun point to either the Northern or Southern Himispheres on Earth. What position corresponds to the spring equinox. B
Below is a view of Earth at a solstice or equinox. People (sizes exaggerated) are numbered 1 to 7; special latitudes are lettered a through e. Sunlight is shown as dashed lines with arrows from lower right to upper left on the right. Three cities are indicated with dots. What time of year is this for the Northern Hemisphere: Winter Solstice
You are standing in the Northern Hemisphere at the position marked X in the figure below. The Sun is at position 6. What time of year does this figure represent: Summer
Arrows in the figure below represent sunlight and the dotted circle is the orbit of the Moon. At what time will the Moon be overhead for person #4: Sunset
In the lunar phase diagram below where dark represents shadow, which is a waxing gibbous moon: 5
The Sun is shining from the left in all three geometeries shown below. Which box represents a lunar eclipse: C
The diagram below shows the Sun (S) adn the Moon (M) in the sky. Arrows at the top show a possible direction of each in the sky due to Earth's rotation. Arrows at the bottom show their possible real motion if different. Which diagram shows the Sun and the Moon and their correct real and apparent motions: D
Where is the Caloris Basin located? Mercury
Which of the Jovian planets is the largest? Jupiter
Which of the Jovian planets is most distant from the sun? Neptune
Which planet exhibits a runaway greenhouse effect? Venus
Which planet has an extremely hot atmosphere? Venus
Which group has few moons: Terrestrial or Jovian planets? Terrestrial
What are the phases of the moon? 
What is a solar eclipse? What phase of the moon does it occur at? A solar eclipse occurs when the moon gets between Earth and the sun, and the moon casts a shadow over Earth. A solar eclipse can only take place at the phase of new moon, when the moon passes directly between the sun and Earth and its shadows fall upon Earth's surface.
What is a lunar eclipse? What phase of the moon does it occur at? When the earth casts a shadow on the moon, it's called a lunar eclipse, and can only happen during the full moon phase.
Define eclipse season Eclipse seasons are the only times during a year eclipses can occur, due to the inclination of the Moon's orbit. Each season lasts for approximately 34 days and repeats just short of six months, thus there are always two full eclipse seasons each year. Two to three eclipses always occur each eclipse season. During the season the inclination of the Moon is low, hence the Sun, Moon and Earth become close enough in alignment for an eclipse to occur.
Where can inferior and superior planets be observed in the sky? Inferior planets are planets whose orbits lie within the orbit of Earth; superior planets planets whose orbits lie outside the orbit of Earth.
List the order of the planets and give the relative location of all objects in the solar system
Hypothesis A preliminary explanation for a phenomenon that further observations may or may not support.
Prediction of a hypothesis How you think the testing of the hypothesis will turn out
Verification of a hypothesis Whether or not what you thought would happen actually happened
Observations of nature Evidence in the form of observations of the natural world; the results of science depend completely on these observations.
Describe the motion of the moon’s shadow during a solar eclipse (Describe the relative motion of the moon and sun in the sky) The path of the lunar umbral shadow across the surface of the Earth is the path of totality (Figure 2.19). Both the Sun and the Moon are crossing the sky from east to west due to the Earth’s rotation (Celestial Motions [1.2]). The Moon, however, has its own orbital motion that takes it eastward on the sky at the same time (Figures 2.20 and 2.14 - Section 3.2). Facing south, the moon moves across the Sun, starting from the Sun’s western limb – its right-hand edge from our vantage point. Consequently, the shadow of the Moon moves from west to east on Earth’s surface. Figure 2.21 is a series of pictures that shows the Moon covering the Sun during a solar eclipse. The eclipse starts at the left where the Moon begins to cover the Sun’s western edge as it moves eastward and ends at the right. After totality, both Sun and Moon continue to move to the west and the Moon’s orbital motion on the sky slowly uncovers the Sun.
Where is the Sun at noon on the Summer solstice (the line 2-8-5 represents the celestial equator): 9
Where does the Sun set at the winter solstice (the line 2-8-5 represents the celestial equator): 4
How much earlier do stars rise/set each day? 4 minutes earlier
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