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A-Level A2 BIOLOGY Flashcards on GENETIC CONTROL OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION, created by ashiana121 on 01/26/2016.

Resource summary

Question Answer
DNA acts as a ____ for a sequence of amino acids that make up a proteins. Code
Where in a cell is DNA largely confined to? Nucleus
Where in the cell does protein synthesis take place? Cytoplasm
How is the DNA in the nucleus transferred to the cytoplasm where it is translated into proteins? Sections of the DNA code are transcribed onto a single stranded molecule - RNA
What are the types of RNA we study? mRNA tRNA
Which type of RNA transfers the DNA code from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and acts as a messenger? mRNA
mRNA is small enough to leave the nucleus through _______ _____ Nuclear pores
Each amino acid is coded for by a sequence of _ nucleotide bases 3
What name is given to this sequence? A codon
What is meant when it is said that the code is 'degenerate'? Most amino acids have more than one codon.
How many 'stop codons' are there? 3
What do stop codons mark? The end of the peptide chain
Give an example of what is meant when the code is said to be 'non-overlapping'? A base sequence 123456 is read as 123 456 rather than 123 234 345 456 etc
It is a _________ code - it is the same codon codes for the same amino acids in all organisms Universal
RNA is made of a ______ nucleotide chain Single
Ribonucleic acid is a _______ made up of repeating mononucleotide sub-units Polymer
It forms a single strand in which each nucleotide is made up of: - A pentose sugar ribose - One of the organic bases (AUGC) - A phosphate group
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a long strand arranged in a single helix. It is made when DNA makes a mirror ____ of part of one of its two strands Copy
mRNA enters the __________ through nuclear pores Cytoplasm
There it acts as a template upon which _______ are built Proteins
tRNA is relatively small and is made up of around how many nucleotides? 80
It is single stranded and folded into what shape? Clover leaf
One end of the structure extends. What is this the point of? Amino acid attachment
What is there at the opposite end of the tRNA molecule? An anticodon
What is the anticodon? A sequence of three organic bases which is complementary to the organic bases on an mRNA molecule
What are the complementary base pairings? AU GC
DNA provides the instructions for protein synthesis in the form of a long sequence of ___________ and the bases they possess Nucleotides
A complementary section of part of this sequence is made in the form of a molecule called pre-mRN during a process called.... Transcription
The pre-mRNA is _______ to form mRNA Spliced
The mRNA is used as a ______ to which complentary tRNA molecules attach and the amino acids they carry are linked to form a oolypeptide Template
What enzymes are involved in transcription? DNA helicase RNA polymerase
What does DNA helicase do? It breaks the H-bonds between the bases on a specific region of the DNA, causing the two strands to separate
What does RNA polymerase do to one of these strands of DNA? It moves along one of them (the template strand) causing the nucleotides on the strand to join with individual complementary nucleotides
When does RNA polymerase detach from the DNA? When it reaches the sequence of bases that act as the stop code
What has been successfully produced after RNA polymerase detaches? Pre-mRNA
What has to happen to the pre-mRNA before it leaves the nucleus? It needs to be spliced
Why is this? It contains introns which do not code for proteins - they need to be removed
Which name is given to the sections that do code for proteins? Exons
Once the introns have been removed, the exons can ______ in a variety of combinations Rejoin
This means that a single section of DNA (____) can code for up to a dozen different proteins Gene
What are certain conditions such as Alzheimer's a result of? Mutations that affect splicing - leading to non-functional polypeptides being made
Towards which organelle is the mRNA attracted to when it leaves the nucleus? Ribosomes
What part of tRNA varies? The sequence of bases on the anticodon loop
At the other end of the tRNA molecule there is a point of attachment for an ______ ____ Amino acid
During __________, a ribosome becomes attach to the starting codon at one end of an mRNA molecule translation
A tRNA molecule with a _________ ______ _______ moves to the ribosome are pairs up with the mRNa Complementary anticodon sequence
What does this tRNA molecule carry? An amino acid
A tRNA molecule with a complementary anticodon to the next codon attaches, also carrying an amino acid. How are these amino acids joined? Peptide bond Enzymes ATP
When a third tRNA comes to join onto a codon, the first tRNA is ______ Released
What is this tRNA molecule free to do? Collect another amino acid from the amino acid pool in the cell
This process continues until what is made? A polypeptide
How can many (up to 50) polypeptide chains be made simultaneously? Up to 50 ribosomes can follow behind the first
At what point is the polypeptide chain complete? When the ribosome reaches a stop codon
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