AP Bio: A View of Life Vocab

timmann
Flashcards by timmann, updated more than 1 year ago
timmann
Created by timmann about 5 years ago
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Description

Chapter 1 in the McGraw Hill AP Biology textbook (eleventh edition). This chapter provides an overview of biology and discusses all four Big Ideas.

Resource summary

Question Answer
biology the scientific study of life
cell the basic unit of structure and function in all living things
unicellular organism an organism made up of a single cell; some examples include paramecia and bacteria
multicellular organism an organism composed of more than one cell; these organisms usually have organized tissues, organs, and organ systems
emergent properties functions or traits that appear as biological complexity increases
biosphere the regions of the Earth's crust, waters, and atmosphere inhabited by living things
ecosystem a biological community together with the associated abiotic environment
community interacting populations in a particular area
population organisms of the same species in a particular area
organism an individual living thing (ex. horse)
organ system a system composed of several organs working together; found in complex organisms (ex. nervous system)
organ a group of tissues functioning together for a specific task (ex. brain)
tissue a group of cells with a common structure and function (ex. nervous tissue)
molecule union of two or more atoms
atom smallest unit of an element; composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons
energy the capacity to do work
metabolism all chemical reactions involved in maintaining the living state and organization of a cell or organism
photosynthesis a process that uses energy from sunlight to reduce carbon dioxide to carbohydrate, transforming solar energy into chemical energy
homeostasis maintenance of normal internal conditions (balance) in a cell or organism by means of self-regulating mechanisms
reproduction the process in which organisms produce other organisms like themselves
gene the molecular unit of heredity; a region of DNA that encodes a functional RNA or protein product
adaptation a modification that makes an organism better able to function in a particular environment
evolution the process in which populations of organisms change over the course of many generations to become more suited to their environments
taxonomy the discipline of identifying and grouping organisms according to certain rules; related to evolutionary relationships between life forms
systematics the study of the evolutionary relationships between organisms
domain Bacteria a domain whose organisms are prokaryotic but differ from archaea because they have their own genetic, biochemical, and physiological characteristics
domain Archaea a domain that contains prokaryotic cells that often live in extreme habitats and have unique genetic, biochemical, and physiological characteristics that separate them from bacteria
domain Eukarya a domain consisting of organisms with eukaryotic cells; includes protists, fungi, plants, and animals
prokaryotic cell a cell that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles; the cell type within the domains Bacteria and Archaea
eukaryotic cell a type of cell that has a membrane-bound nucleus and membranous organelles; found in the domain Eukarya
protists the group of eukaryotic organisms that are not a plant, fungus, or animal. They are generally a microscopic complex single cell, and they evolved before other eukaryotes
plant a multicellular photosynthetic organism
fungus eukaryotic saprotrophic decomposer; the body is made up of filaments called hyphae that form a mass called a mycelium
animal a multicellular; heterotrophic eukaryote that undergoes development to achieve its final form; characterized by the presence of muscular and nervous tissue
binomial nomenclature a system biologists use to assign each living thing a two-part scientific name; the first word signifies the genus and the second signifies the species
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