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A2 PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 3 Biological Rhythms / sleep
CIRCADIAN RHYTHM 24 hour cycles GREEN: "Mammals have over 100 circadian rhythms" e.g. sleep wake cycle Endogenous Pacemakers: . Internal Clues to govern the sleep wake cycle Main pacemaker = SCN, a cluster of nerve cells in the hypothalamus which detect the light and then activate the pineal gland which released hormone melatonin. Melatonin induced sleepiness. MORGAN: Removed the SCN in hamsters and found their circadian rhythms to disappear. Which were re-established when foetal hamsters SCN were transplanted back. Exogenous Zietgebers Light = dominant ziegeber MILES: Blindman = 24.9 hour sleep cycle but had to use stimulants and sedatives to co-ordinate to the rest of the world However, LUCE & SEGAL = People in the Arctic circle sleep for 7 hours a night despite the sun never setting - showing humans can adapt to environmental pressure which are vital for survival
INFRADIAN ^ than 24 hours Mental Cycle (Approx. 28 day) . Governed by hormones progesterone and oestrogen. Causing the lining of the womb to engorge with blood and for one egg to be released from the ovaries. If the egg isn't fertilised the lining shreds away. The cycle repeats if unfertilised egg. However, research can show influence of external clues too McClinktok - Pheromones Pheromones = hormones released into the air, telling women to release an egg These causes women who spend a lot of time together to have synchronised cycles. E.g. Boarding schools, close friends, family
ULTRADIAN ↓ 24 hours E.G. the sleep wake cycle How Sleep is Measured: EEG (brain activity) . Measured bio-electric activity - electrodes placed on the scalp EOG (eye movements) Measures eye movements - electrodes placed onto the face, cornea = front of eye EMG (muscle activity) Measures muscles at contracting and rest - electrodes placed on muscles, especially chin Sleep Wave Movement: (Diagram in book) EEG: fast, small waves -> slow, big waves EOG: normal -> little (REM = rapid) EMG: Tight waves -> relaxed -> X tension Stages of Sleep: 90 mins 1. Hypogogic, ↓ heart rate, muscle = THETA WAVES 2. Sleep spindles, reaction to K complexes = THETA WAVES 3. Deep sleep transition, wave change = DELTA WAVES 4. Same as 3, groggy if woken = DELTA REM. ^ Dreaming, sleep paralysis, ^ eye movement, ↓ muscle tension = BETA WAVES
DEPRIVATION Not having enough sleep, can be acute or chronic. Causes fatigue, clumsiness, weight loss or gain PETER TRIPP Aim: The effect of sleep deprivation Procedure: Charity 'Wakethon', stayed awake for 8 days/200 hours. Findings: Delusions and Halluncinations, e.g. desk on fire So server, it was hard to test the precise level of psychological functioning slept for 24 hours after Long term = months/years, divorced and lost job Huber-Weidman Reviewed a large number of sleep deprivation studies 1 night: not comfortable but tolerable 2 nights: greater urge to sleep, especially at 3/5 am when body temp is ↓ 3 nights: Attention/complex tasks are difficult to complete 4 nights: 'Micro-sleeps', irritable and confused 5 nights: delusions, cognitive ability impaired 6 nights: total lack of personal identity and difficulty to work with people and the environment
DISRUPTION Problems with sleeping JET LAG: . Circadian rhymth disrupted by enterting different timezones, confusing the biological and enviornment messages . Fatigue, ↓ concentration, ↓ memory . Treatment = melatonin and sun . Influenced by age, individual differences, direction of flight and no. of time zones passed . Phase Delay - extending the circadian rhythm in a forward shift = better for the body to cope with . Phase Advance - shortening the circadian rhythm in a backwards shift = harder for the body to cope with SCHWARTZ (1995) basketball study . Analysed results from a US basketball team in relation to the direction of travel. Findings: won 44% of games when travelling east to west and 37% when west-> east SHIFT WORK: Society demands a 24/7 workforce . Health and Hazard issues, because people are tired as their circadian rhythm is out of cycle E.g. Chernobyl: nuclear explosion - 1AM . Fast rotating shifts = shifts that continually change so the body can recover better because it causes phase delay CZEISLER Utah chemical plant, workers on a phase advanced
A02 :) Research Support = ^ external reliability :) Practical Applications How to obtain healthy sleep and the development of effective treatments EASTMAN: placebo effect = less effective than actual tablets = ^ external validity :( Methodological Criticism Case Studies = individuality and often cannot be replicated due to ethical issues = ? validity :( Reductionism no account for individual differences, e.g. type A personality who have more demanding jobs = ↓ internal validity :( Biological Reductionism Lab and animal research cannot be fully applied to complex human behaviours JOUVET - cat study = would never actually be a scenario :( Deterministic Vs Free will Raises problems with the current legal system. PMS = defined as a mental problem in past. Johnson = Mrs. English killed husband and was put onto probation before murder charge - ^ research as it ignores the role of free will and how we may be in control of our biological cycles
LIFESPAN CHANGES (Infants, Children) Quality & Quantity changes Infants: . Newborns = 16-18 hours . NREM and REM split equally, and enter REM immediately until 3 months old. . REM is not noticeably different to their waking EEG . 20 weeks = awake 10am - 8pm Children: . Age 1= 13-14 hours sleep on a 45-60 min cycle . Age 5-10 = Cycle ^ to 70 mins (Dement) . Age 5-12 = Sleep ↓ to 9-10 hours Deep sleep first half of night, indicating the thalamocortical system is maturing . REM ↓ to 25% of sleep ( an ^ of NREM links to maturation of the brain and increase in activities) . Dement "sleep-utopia" = for pre-teens when awake and alert in the day, but fast asleep at night
LIFESPAN CHANGES (Teens & adulthood, middle adulthood and later adulthood) Teenagers & Adulthood . Hormones for puberty are released from the pituitary glands during slow wave sleep. A ↓ in melatonin = indicates body to start puberty . ↓ quality and quantity, not noticeable . External pressures ^ e.g work and friends which may make the sleep irregular . 18-30 = ↓ sleep and ↓ deep sleep (not noticeable) . DEMENT = need as much sleep as teens but external forces are too demanding Middle Adulthood . 7 hours, NREM 1 gone Shallowing and shortening of sleep, ^ of fatigue . Women = menopause . Men = andropause = ↓ of hormones meaning they want to sleep earlier but suffer more from deprivation and have a ↓ quality Later Adulthood . DEMENT = 40% of men and women suffer from microsleeps lasting 3 seconds for 200 -1,000 times a night . ↓ circadian drip = wake earlier but lose 1/2 hours sleep
A02 :) Research Support DEMENT: 'standford summer sleep camp' 7 year longitudinal study with children recorded sleep patterns each night = ^ internal reliability :) Practical Application Information on how to achieve healthy sleep and US intensive research into sudden infant death (SID) since 1970s supported by sleep research = ^ external reliability :( Methodological Labs and wires = changed behaviour = ↓ external validity However, recorded more than one night :( Ethnocentric Only into western monophasic sleep - other cultures = poloyphastic e.g spain Borbley = greeks only 43% sista indication globalisation = ↓ external validity :( Reductionism Little research into the effects of external forces, especially co-sleep = ↓ external validity :( Individual differences Webb - Differences in ages, but no indication within that age group
RESTORATION THEORY OSWALD (1980) Deep NREM = Body Repair REM = Brain Repair NREM: ^ Release in hormones from the pituitary gland which secrete growth hormones which repair the immune system and muscle repair REM: Brain growth, balance of neurotransmitters and stimulation of protein synthesis (repair cells) Infants = ^ time in REM so experience rapid neutral development then Supporting Research: Green = Newborns spend 50% more time in REM because they're born immature and need extra growth hormones HORNE (1988) Core Sleep = SWS and REM is when the most repair and restoration take place Optional Sleep = NREM 123 which are less important yet if absence of core sleep, takes place here but slower or even relaxed wakefulness Research Support: Shaprio: Studied the sleep of 56 mile marathon runners before and after the race Findings: 2 & 1/2 hours more sws sleep after because body needed to repair Bias: However, Shaprio and many of studies of endurance sports only focuses on males = Androcentric and even cultural bias Needs more research to be a full valid theory for women
A02 :) Supporting Research ^ :( Bias ^ :) Practical Application Endurance based athletes have short sleep sessions after to promote protein synthesis = ^ external validity :( Methodological Extreme case studies are unreplicable because of ethical issues and animal studies = mundane realism = Questionable validity :( Contradictory Research Horne = Gave exhausting activities to Pp F: when to sleep quicker, but not a change in pattern = ↓ external reliability :( Reductionism Doesn't take into account individual differences of sleep styles. E.g. Polyphasic sleep 'Uberman' sleep for 2 hours in 6 20 min naps reported feeling more alert and productive = ↓ external validity
EVOLUTIONARY (Ecological) Background: DARWIN: Natural selection adaptive survival traits allowing reproduction E.g. Giraffes - long necks = more food Also adaptive behaviour e.g. hunting, aggression and mate selextion Paradox of Sleep - Sleep = more vulnerable to predators because unaware? Predatory and Prey MEDDIS Sleep is adaptive because it makes the animal quiet and hidden which is harder to find. Nocturnal = danger in the day Diurnal = danger at night because of physical e.g. eye sight Hibernation WEBB Argues short term sleep is adaptive the same as hibernation. In the winter, there is less food and it takes energy to stay warm ( similar to humans, not adaptive to night and easier to sleep when dark because of melatonin) - proving that sleep is adaptive and not a conscious process but rather a unconscious process stemming from evolution
AO2 :) Research Support (Prey/Pred) Pillari - Indus Dolphins that have numerous microsleeps during the day due to their dangerous environment of the river mouth (Hibernation) different animal sleep patterns = survival same = ^ external reliability :( Contradictory Research Sheep - ↓ sleep but ^ danger due to physical (not hiding well/speed) Food chain - predators are also prey = ↓ validity of conclusions :( Methodological Criticism Tendency to chose from simple animals and applied to complex human behaviour E.g. Darwin - Vampire Bats and war behaviour also, no more predators for humans = ↓ external validity :( Reductionism Fails to apply the restoration theory and why we have different stages of sleep = Combine together for full theory :( No genetic evidence The theory is reliant on innate drives, yet their is no evident for adaptive behaviours such as aggression rather predispositions = ↓ internal reliability :( Ignores social influence/ SLT All genetics, no learnt behaviour from parents such as hunting or copying hibernation
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