Acute Exercise, Insulin Resistance and Diabetes

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Exercise Metabolism Flashcards on Acute Exercise, Insulin Resistance and Diabetes, created by alexlpeart on 05/01/2013.

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Created by alexlpeart almost 6 years ago
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Question Answer
Hows does the prevalence of type II diabetes change with age? Increased prevalence with age.
Describe the differences between Type I and Type II diabetes. Type I- Early onset, pancreatic beta cells damage so no or little insulin. Type II- Onset gradually during adulthood, metabolic abnormalities, Beta cells less responsive to glucose
Give some metabolic abnormalities caused by type II diabetes Delayed or impaired insulin secretion, impaired insulin action, excessive glucose release from the liver
Men/Women have a greater risk of getting type II diabetes. Women
Give three methods of measuring glucose tolerance and give the main outline of each of them. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, measures glucose required to compensate for know increase in insulin. Oral glucose tolerance test, 75g of glucose given and plasma glucose levels monitored for 2 hours. Homeostatic model assessment, fasting blood glucose taken and analysed.
Describe the effect exercise on glucose uptake. Exercise increase glucose uptake significantly increase, and is a dose linked response.
Describe the effect exercise on glucose uptake. Exercise increase glucose uptake significantly increase, and is a dose linked response.
What does AICAR do? How has it been shown that the action of AICAR dosen't require PI3 Kinase AICAR is a drug we give to activate AMPK. Experiments have found that AMKP activated translocation of GLUT 4 does not require PI3 Kinase by giving subjects wortmannin which inhibits the action of PI3 Kinase. They found insulin GLUT 4 translocation was lower while AMPK was slightly higher.
Describe the mechanism where by GLUT 4 is translated to the cells surface after muscle contraction. Contraction releases calcium ions and AMP. this leads to AMPK being activated which in turn activates TBC1D4 (or AS160). These cause RAB-GDP to be converted to RAB-GTP which causes translocation of the GLUT 4.
what effect does exercise have on glycogen synthase? Increases its activity.
What is the effect of nitric oxide on GLUT 4? Causes translocation as a result of exercise.