Glycogenolysis and Glycogenesis

alexlpeart
Flashcards by alexlpeart, updated more than 1 year ago
alexlpeart
Created by alexlpeart about 8 years ago
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Exercise Metabolism Flashcards on Glycogenolysis and Glycogenesis, created by alexlpeart on 04/29/2013.

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Question Answer
How much glycogen would you expect in a well fed persons liver and muscles? 100g in liver and 400g in muscle.
Why does gluconeogenesis always occur in the liver. The liver is the only place which has the glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme required to convert glucose-6-phosphate to glucose.
Describe the process of adding glucose onto glycogen. Glucose-1-phosphate is reacted with UTP by the enzyme UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase which forms UDP glucose (glucose with a uridine on it). UDP glucose then attaches to glycogen strands by the enzyme glycogen synthase.
Describe how branches are formed in glycogen. Why are branches beneficial in glycogen? Long chains of glucose molecules joined by a 1-4 glycosidic bond are cleaved by branching enzymes and then reattached on the 1-6 glycosidic bond position forming a branch. Branches allow for quicker breakdown and more efficient storage of glycogen.
What molecule do we need present when we break glucose from glycogen chain? What molecule is formed when glucose is cleaved from the end of a glycogen chain? Inorganic phosphate (Pi). Forms glucose-1-phosphate.
What enzymes cause glycogen synthase to become active or inactive? What external factors might influence these enzymes? Protein phosphatase activates glycogen synthase, Glucose-6-phosphate and insulin activate protein phosphatase. Protein kinase A deactivates glycogen synthase which is activated by glucagon, adrenaline and Ca2+.
Does insulin cause GLUT 4 to move to or away from the cell membrain? Towards the cell membrain.
What is allosteric regulation? Regulation by protein molecules
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