Chapter 2: Studying Groups

Laura McDaniel
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Group Dynamics: HMS 141 Flashcards on Chapter 2: Studying Groups, created by Laura McDaniel on 10/23/2016.

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Laura McDaniel
Created by Laura McDaniel over 2 years ago
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Question Answer
Chptr. 2: Studying Groups blank
Observation A measurement method that involves watching and recording the activities of individuals and groups
Overt observation Openly watching and recording information with no attempt to conceal one's research purposes
Covert observation Watching and recording information on the activities of individuals and groups without their knowledge
Participant observation Watching and recording group activities as a member of the group or participation in the social process
Hawthorne effect A change in behavior that occurs when individuals know they are being observed or studied
Qualitative study A research procedure that collects and analyzes nonnumeric, unquantified types of data, such as verbal descriptions, text, images, or objects
Structured observational method A research procedure that creates a systematic record of group interaction and activities by classifying (coding) each overt expression or action into a defined category
Quantitative study A research procedure that collects and analyzes numeric data, such as frequencies, proportions, or amounts
Interaction Process Analysis (IPA) A structured coding system used to measure group activity by classifying each observed behavior into one of 12 categories, such as "shows solidarity" or "asks for orientation" (developed by Robert F. Bales)
Systematic Multiple Level Observation of Groups (SYMLOG) A theoretical and structured coding system for recording the activities of a group and the overall behavioral orientation of the members. The system assumes group activities can be classified along three dimensions: dominance vs submissiveness, friendliness vs unfriendliness, and acceptance of vs opposition to authority (developed by Robert F. Bales)
Reliablity The degree to which a measurement technique consistently yields the same conclusion at different times. For measurement techniques with two or more components, reliability is also the degree to which these components yield similar conclusions
Validity The degree to which a measurement method assesses what it was designed to measure
Self-report measure An assessment method, such as a questionnaire, test, or interview, that asks respondents to describe their feelings, attitudes, or beliefs
Sociometry A method for measuring the relationships among members of a group and summarizing those relationships graphically (developed by Jacob Moreno)
Sociogram A graphic representation of the patterns of intermember relations created through sociometry. In most cases, each member of a group is depicted by a symbol, such as a lettered circle or square, and relations among members (e.g. communication links, friendship pairings) are indicated by lines from one member to another
Social network analysis (SNA) A set of procedures for studying the relational structure of groups and networks mathematically and graphically. Using information about the relationships (ties, edges) linking members (nodes, vertexes), the method yields member-level indexes (e.g. centrality, betweenness), group-level indexes (e.g., density, cohesiveness), and a graphic representation of the unit
Groupthink A set of negative group-level processes, including illusions of vulnerability, self-censorship, and pressures to conform, that occur when highly cohesive groups seek concurrence rather than objective analysis when making a decision (identified by Irving Janis)
Case study A research technique that draws on multiple sources of information to examine, in depth, the activities and dynamics of a group or groups
bona fide group A naturally occuring group, such as an audience, board of directors, club, or team; compare to an ad hoc group created for research purposes
Scapegoat An individual or group who is unfairly held responsible for a negative event and outcome; the innocent target of interpersonal hostility
Experiment A research design in which the investigator a) manipulates at least one variable by randomly assigning participants to two or more different conditions, b) measures at least one other variable, and c) controls the influence of other variables on the outcome
Independent variable Something that the researcher changes in an experimental study while holding other variables constant and measuring the dependent variable; the causal mechanism in a cause-effect relationship
Dependent variable The resultant outcomes measured by the researcher; the effect variable in a cause-effect relationship
Reference group A group or collective that individuals use as a standard or frame of reference when selecting