Citizenship Key Words

Flashcards by akhlaqhabib, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by akhlaqhabib almost 8 years ago


Citizenship Flashcards on Citizenship Key Words, created by akhlaqhabib on 05/05/2013.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Pressure group A group of people or a voluntary organisation formed to defend a particular interest or to campaign for change and influence official policy.
Prosecute To bring a criminal case against someone in court.
Racism The belief that certain races, ethnic groups or nationalities have particular qualities that mark them out as being superior or inferior to others. The term is also used to describe abusive or aggressive behaviour towards someone of a different race, ethnic group or nationality that stems from such a belief or from a stereotypical or prejudiced view.
Referendum The process of putting an important question, or set of questions, to the direct vote of the people as a whole, rather than allowing the matter to be decided by their representatives.
Refugee Under the terms of the 1951 Geneva Convention, a refugee is defined as someone who, because of 'a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country…'.
Responsibilities Obligations or matters over which a person is considered to have a legal or moral duty.
Rights Claims, privileges or entitlements, normally protected by law.
Small claims court Strictly known as the small claims procedure, and operated in the county court, this is an informal way of settling disputes at a fraction of the normal cost.
Statute law Another name for an Act of Parliament.
Sue Taking a person or company to court in order to obtain compensation for the loss or injuries you have suffered.
Trade(s) union An organised group of working people who combine to improve their conditions of employment.
United Nations An international organisation (to which most countries of the world belong) that works to prevent war and to maintain international peace and security.
UN Convention on the Rights of the Child An almost universally signed agreement that sets out the basic rights that all children should receive. The Convention is made up of 54 rights, with a number of protocols that have been added at later dates
UN Human Rights Commission The Commission investigates and monitors cases where governments are suspected of serious breaches of human rights.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights In 1948, the United Nations adopted a Universal Declaration of Human Rights setting out a common standard of rights to which everyone is entitled.
Volunteering Freely giving up time to do something of benefit to others, the environment or other causes.
White Paper A document setting out firm proposals on how the government intends to change the law, which becomes the basis of a bill, which is then debated by Parliament. (Not all bills, however, are preceded by White Papers.)
Youth court A special court hearing cases in which children and young people aged between 10 and 17 are accused of a crime.
Youth Offending Team A group of people - made up of social workers, police and probation and educational welfare officers - who work with and support young people who have been in trouble with the law.
Magistrate Magistrates, or Justices of the Peace as they are sometimes known, are members of the local community who work in court as magistrates on a part- time basis, on average two or three days a month. They normally hear cases in threes. They do not need to have any legal or academic qualifications, but do receive training, and they are unpaid, except for expenses. Magistrates handle almost 95 per cent of criminal cases. Their job is to consider the evidence in each case. In more serious cases they will send the defendant to the Crown Court to be tried by a judge and jury
Magistrates' court A local court that hears mainly criminal cases, but also deals with some matters of civil law. All criminal cases are first brought to a magistrates' court, where most are dealt with. If the accused is aged 17 or under, the case will normally be heard in a youth court. The more serious offences are passed onto the Crown Court if the magistrates are satisfied that there is a reasonable case against the accused
Parliament The law-making body of the United Kingdom, consisting of the House of Commons, the House of Lords and the Crown.
Politics The process dealing with resolving the differences in resources, values and objectives that exist between different human groups.
Political literacy Possession of the skills, knowledge and understanding that enable someone to take an interest and become involved in political events, institutions, problems and ideas.
Political party An organised group of people sharing similar political views and aiming to win political power in a country or region, usually through elections.
European Court Of Human Rights The court that hears hears cases in which it is claimed there has been a breach of the European Convention on Human Rights. The court sits in Strasbourg in north-eastern France
European Union An organisation (currently) of 15 member states that seeks to create a single market in which goods, services, people and money can move freely between member states. Fair trade in economics, fair trade is traditionally defined as a policy under which countries trade with each other on the same terms and conditions- in other words, trade that operates under similar concessions or restrictions so that it is 'fair' to both sides
Globalization The process by which business, politics and culture operate on a world scale, no longer confined to single countries or continents
High Court The civil court that first hears the most serious cases in England. it is divided into three divisions- chancery, Queens Bench and Family- covering a wide variety of subjects, such as company law, compensation for people injured or killed in accidents, and questions of family law and divorce. The full name of the court is a High Court of Justice
Government A general term referring to the body or group of people exercising rule or control over a particular area, on a local, regional, or national basis
House of Commons The section of Parliament made up of elected MP's. The House of Commons consists of 659 MP's, each representing a different constituency in England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Virtually all MP's belong to and represent a Political party
House of Lords That section of Parliament consists mainly of people who have been specially appointed as peers, whose appointment is for life, The members also include a small number of hereditary peers and leading bishops
House of Parliament The House of Commons and the House of Lords are two Houses of Parliament, located on the north side of the River Themes in the center of London. The correct name for the building in which they are housed is a Palace of Westminister
Human Rights Rights and freedoms to which every human being is entitled
Lobbying Attempting to influence decision-makers or legislators to support a particular position
Local Authority Another name for the local or county council, or the metropolitan or borough council, whose responsibility includes the local provision of education, transport, planning controls, environmental protection, refuse collection, housing and social services
Community A team used to refer to a group of people sharing certain values or having certain conditions in common, describing for example, people living in the same locality, or those with shared cultural, religious or other characteristics
Constitution A set of principles on which a state is governed, setting out the fundamental rights and duties of individual citizens, and the powers and duties of the public authorities
Consumer A private individual buying goods and services for his or her own use, rather than in the course of business
Criminal law That part of our common and statue covering behavior that the state has designed a crime. Criminal law covers offence such as murder, theft, assault, offences involving firearms and other weapons, crimes against public order, crimes against public order, crimes against state security, road traffic offences, false trade descriptions and food and drug offences
Controversial issue A question or topic where there genuinely held opposing held opposing views, and that is the subject argument or debate. Foxhunting, abortion, and the 2003 war in Iraq are all examples of this
Crown Court A court that hears the prosecution of more serious crimes. Cases are presided over by a judge, the verdict is reached by a jury
Debate A formal discussion in which opposing arguments are con considered and discussed. In some circumstances it may take the form of the presentation of and opposition to a formal motion, followed by a vote
Democracy The term is derived from two Greek words: demos, meaning people, and kratos, strength. Today, dictionaries invariably define the word in relation to 'rule or government by the people'
Dictatorship A form of Government that is not in practice restricted by laws or by a constitution, where the ruler and his or her followers have absolute power. examples modern dictators include Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Josef Stalin, Pol Pot and Saddam Hussein
County Court A local court dealing with a wide range of civil law disputes. most cases are brought by people trying to recover debts or money owned as a part of a contract. However, county courts also handle cases involving personal injury compensation claims, family matters, divorce, and discrimination not connected with employment
Court Of Appeal A senior court who judges hear appeals against the judgement of the first court in both civil and criminal cases
Crime Behavior that the state has decided must be discouraged or prevent - such as murder, assault or thief. An action deemed by law to be a public wrong. crimes are usually dealt with by the police, or some other authority, and not by the individuals concerned
Commonwealth Today used as a shorthand term to refer to commonwealth of Nations that developed in the 20th century as the former colonies in the British Empire Achieved self-government and became independent. Countries include the UK, Canada, New Zealand, Kenya, India, Sri Lanka and Australia
Act Of Parliament A law passed by Parliament. Also called a statue law
Age Discrimination Discriminating against someone because of his or her age. sometimes this is unfair; sometimes it is justified
Age Content The age at which a boy or girl can legally agree to sexual intercourse with a boy or man without them breaking the law
Age Of Criminal Responsibility The age at which a young person becomes ca[able of being charged with, and punished by the courts for, a crime. The age of criminal of criminal responsibility in England, Wales and Northern Ireland is 10 (in Scotland it is eight). A child under the age of 10 who commits a serious offence or repeatedly breaks the law may be taken into care of the local authority. A local authority may also obtain an order (such as an antisocial behavior order) to control the behavior of young people under 10
Arrest Taking someone into the control of the law, usually because they are suspected of having committed a crime. A person who has been arrested by the police is entitled to certain protections. they entitled to know the reason for their arrest, to see a solicitor, and to read a copy of the codes of practice explaining the procedures the police must follow when questioning suspects.
Asylum Obtaining safety in another country when a person is being persecuted in their home country because of their race, religion. nationality, political option or membership of a particular social group
Asylum Seeker A person who moves from one country to another, in search of protection, and who lodges a claim for asylum as a refugee
Bill The name given to a draft Act of Parliament before it becomes law.
Charity An organisation set up to provide help or assistance to those in need. In the UK a charity must be registered with Charity Commission if it is to revive certain benefits.
Citizen The word is used in a number of ways. first, it refers to any individual with whatever rights and responsibility they have where they are living; secondly, it describes an inhabitant of a city or town; and thirdly, it refers to the legal status of people who are native born or have naturalized in a particular state or nation
Civil Law The part of our common or statue law that is designed to regulate relationship and settle disagreements between individuals or groups of people where the statue or government is not directly involved. Civil law covers matters such as marriage, divorce, employment and consumer complaints- where the letter or mechanism or the law is used to settle a dispute or alter a legal relationship
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