The Rise of the Nazis

absterps18
Flashcards by , created over 5 years ago

Section 2- Germany 1918-1945

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absterps18
Created by absterps18 over 5 years ago
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Question Answer
Who helped the weimar republic to recover in a number of ways between 1924 and 1929? Gustav Stresemann
Why was it a difficult time for the Nazi party when the Weimar Republic were recovering? When the Weimar Republic were succeeding during the years 1924 and 1929, German people would not want to change Germany.
What would this result in the German people thinking? It was not worth supporting a political party such as the Nazi Party
What was clear that the Nazis would have to do in order to gain popularity? The Nazis would have to change their tactics
Between what years did the Nazi party make alterations in order to try and become more successful? 1924-1929
What was the Nazis first alteration- Tactic 1? Hitler's plan to gain power
How long was Hitler sentenced for after his trial for his role in the Munich Putsch? He was sentenced to 5 years in prison
How many months after Hitler was put in prison was he released? 8 months after
What did Hitler spend a lot of time thinking about whilst he was in prison? The future of the Nazi party and how to gain power
Who did Hitler reveal his thoughts to while in prison? Kurk Ludecke
How did Hitler's decisions on how to gain power change while he was in prison? Before Hitler attempted to take power away from the Weimar Republic by having a revolution (illegal method). But whilst in prison he decided that the Nazis should gain power legally by being elected into the Reichstag.
What was Hitlers second alteration- Tactic 2? Reorganising the Nazi Party
What did Hitler start doing as soon as he got out of prison? Reorganising the Nazi Party
Why did Hitler want to make the party more popular with the German people? So that they would want to vote for the Nazis
When and where did Hitler relaunch the Nazi Party? At a rally in Munich on 27th February 1925
What was this relaunch used as for the Nazi Party? It was used as a way of gaining publicity for the Nazi party, which hitler hoped would make more people vote for the Nazis
What was Hitler's third alteration- Tactic 3? Attracting support from the working classes
How did the Nazis attract support from the working class between 1924 and 1929? They held a lot of public meetings where they tried to promote the nazi message
What message did the Nazis find was supported by the working class? Their anti-jewish message
Why did the working class support the anti-jewish message? This was because many members of the working classes believed that the jews were to blame for unemployment in Germany
However what was the real reason for unemployment in Germany? Hyperinflation
What did the Nazis doing after realising this anti-jewish message was popular with the working class? The Nazis made sure that they increased this message in their propaganda
What was the Nazis fourth alteration- Tactic 4? Attracting support from the middle class
When and why did the Nazis decide to change their tactics again? 1928, the Nazis had noticed that the working class was not supporting the Nazi Party in large numbers
Why was the working class not supporting the Nazi Party in large numbers? Many working class people were loyal to the Communist Party
What did the Nazis decide to do in result of this problem? They decided to attract the support of the middle classes and farmers
What example shows that the Nazis targeted their messages, propaganda and polices at farmers and middle class people? The Nazis began to campaign of behalf of farmers who were suffering economic hardship
What was the Nazis fifth alteration- Tactic 5? Public meetings
What was Nazis solution in finding a way of spreading their message and ideas around Germany? To hold public meetings
How would these public meetings work? Members of the Nazi Party would make speeches and the public could ask questions
How did the Nazis show good tactics? they changed their message according to who was in their audience
Who would the Nazis attack if they were talking to the working class? they would attack the rich
Who would the Nazis attack if they were talking to the middle class? they would attack the Communists
Why did the Nazis attack the Communists when they were talking to the middle class? Because many middle class people hated the Communist
Why did the middle class people hate the Communists? because the communist said that the working class people should rule, and that there should not be a middle class
Why were these years difficult for the Nazis? Germany was recovering and people were hopeful about the future
How many seats did Nazis have in the Reichstag in 1924? 32 seats
How many seats did the Nazis have in the Reichstag by 1929? 12 seats
Why did it seem as if no one was interested in what the Nazis wanted? The Nazis were too EXTREME
What 4 ways did Hitler try to make the Nazis popular? 1. He organised the party 2. He decided to make the anti-jewish message louder and clearer to attract support from working class voters. 3. He tried to make the Party more attractive to the middle class 4. They organised a lot of public meetings to bring home their message. They changed the message depending on the audience
By how many members had the Nazi increased their membership to by 1929? 100,000 members
However what was still very low? Their votes
What was needed to happen for the Nazis to gain support? Something dramatic
If something dramatic did happen how were the Nazis in a strong position to take advantage? They had: 1. A good organisation 2. Loyal support 3. A clear message 4. A dynamic leader 5. People knew who the Nazis were and they were familiar with their ideas
What was a Dramatic change which happened in October 1929? The Wall Street crash happened in America
What did the wall street crash cause? It caused the Great Depression in America but, importantly, had a massive effect all over the world, especially in Germany
What were the effects in Germany from the Wall Street Crash? 1. The American banks asked for all the money they had loaned to Germany back- These loans were keeping the German industry going, when they were taken back German industry started to collapse. 2. Other countries stopped buying German goods, businesses closed- millions of people started to loose their jobs
Who suffered during the Great Depression in Germany? 1. Businessmen 2. Young People 3. Farmers 4. Factory Workers
How did Businessmen Suffer? Businessmen saw their businesses close- people had less to spend, even on essentials like food and clothes. To make it worse the government actually raised taxes to pay for looking after the increasing number of poor people.
How/why did Young people suffer? In 1933 over half of all Germans were unemployed between the ages of 16 and 30. Sixty percent of university graduates could not get a job
How/Why did Farmers suffer? Farmers had not done well in the 1920s. Prices had been falling since 1925. In the 1930s farmers slipped further into debt.
How/Why did Factory workers suffer? 40% of all factory workers were unemployed by 1932. At the same time the government cut unemployment benefits to cut money. For the unemployed this was a time of extreme poverty
How did the Great Depression weaken the Weimar Republic? 1. The effects of the Depression on different groups in Germany 2. Unpopular economic policies 3. Presidential Rule 4. The Rise of the Extremism
How did the effects of the Depression on different Groups in Germany weaken the Weimar Republic? The different groups which suffered blamed the Weimar Republic for their suffering, and as a result the Weimar Republic became more unpopular
2. How did unpopular economic polices weak the Weimar Republic? COVER CARD
What leader of the Centre Party tried to get Germany out of the Depression? Bruuning
But what was the problem? To many Germans in it did not seem to have any good ideas about how to solve the problem
What was one way for the Government to solve the problem of Depression To print money and spend it on creating jobs and supporting businesses
However why was the government afraid to use this method? They remembered the inflation of 1923
What did the government decide to do? They decided that they were going to rise taxes, cut wages and reduce the money it gave to the unemployed.
What did the government hope to save this way? It hoped to save money
3. How did the Presidential Rule weaken the Weimar Republic? COVER CARD
Why did the polices of the Weimar Republic lead to a collapse in the Government? Many of the political parties did not want to be involved in cutting the money the poor was receiving
What did this mean? None of the political parties were prepared to rule the country
What did the Chancellor decide to do? He decided to use article 48 of the Weimar Constitution in order to try and solve the problem of who would run the country
What did Article 48 give the president (Hindenburg) power to do? It gave him special powers to run the country. He could pass any law that he liked. These laws were called decrees
However why did many people believe that Hindenburg (the president) was not a strong leader? He was an 84 year old war hero. Many people believed he was out of touch with ordinary people and that he was controlled by businessmen and army leaders
4. How did The Rise of Extremism weaken the Weimar Republic? More and more people began to get interested in politics, because they were hoping to find a leader who would help Germany recover from the Depression. This was because it seemed the Weimar Republic was not doing anything with the problems
Why did this weaken the Weimar Republic? Many people voted for the extreme left wing and right wing parties who said they could solve all of Germany's problems
What did the communist say in order to win over Germany? Depression showed that the capitalist system (private industries) was doomed and only communism had the answer
Who did the Nazis blame in order to gain popularity? They blamed the Weimar Republic, the Treaty of Versailles, the Marxists (communists) and the jews.
What happened as more people in Germany voted for these parties? The Weimar Republic became less and less popular
How did the Great Depression help the Nazis win power? They took advantage of the depression and used every opportunity to suggest that only the Nazis had the solutions to Germany's problems and that the Weimar Republic was no good for Germany.
What key points did the Nazis make in order to win power? 1. The Weimar system of Government was weak 2. Unemployment could be solved by them 3. The Nazis said they had the power to crush the Communists 4. The Nazis had Hitler
Why was it not definite that it would be the Nazis who would be voted into power by the people of Germany? There were other political parties who seemed to be more popular with the people of Germany
What proof is there that there were other parties more popular with the people of Germany? In 1928: The Nazis only has 12 seats The communist has 54 seats Social Democrats has 153 seats
The key message, therefore, is why did the Nazis become more popular than the Communists and the social Democrats as the Depression continued? COVER CARD
What were the factors which led the Nazis popularity? a. Leadership and organisation b. The polices of the Nazi Party c. Use of Nazi Propaganda d. The weaknesses of the Opposition to the Nazis
What was the Nazis leadership like and how were they organised? i. Organisation ii. "Hitler the Superman"
i. Organisation The Nazis were very well organised
What had many of the Nazis been in the First World War? Soldiers
What did the Nazis bring to the Party? Obedience, organisation and team work skills. The local party members were skilled and trained
ii. "Hitler the Superman" The one thing that remained the same throughout the elections of this time was the way Hitler presented himself
What was Hitler continually shown as? A strong man and a leader who could lead germany to a better future
What skills did Hitler develop? His speech making skills
How did Hitler deliver his speeches? very powerfully. It didn't seem to matter what he said as much as the way he said it
How did the polices of the Nazis lead them to being more popular? i. Flexible and vague polices ii. Promises to voters iii. Support from industry
i. Flexible and vague polices The Nazis were very vague in their polices and changed them if they thought they were loosing support
What was one example of the Nazis changing their polices? In one election speech a Nazi leader promised the nationalisation of industry (the take over of industry by the government). When the Nazis realised how unpopular this was with businessmen they quickly changed their policy.
What did the Nazis realise about campaigns? It was more important to get people to trust you than to give them lots of detail
Therefore what did the Nazis decide to do? Make vague promises
What were many Germans unsure about? What the Nazis stood for
ii. Promises to voters Everybody in Germany was promised something by the Nazis
What were workers promised? Jobs
What were employers promised? Profits
What were farmers promised? Higher prices
What were shopkeepers promised? Protection against competition
iii. Support from the industry One of the aims of the Nazis was to get businessmen to support them and powerful industrialists
Why did many businessmen start to support the Nazis? They felt the Nazis were the party who would be able to defeat the Communists
How did the Nazis help pay for the Nazis propaganda and organisation? Money which was received from some of the rich businessmen
How did the use of Nazi Propaganda help the Nazis to gain popularity? i. Effective Propaganda ii. Use of technology to aid propaganda
i. Effective propaganda The party was very good with propaganda. They used every trick in the book to get across their message.
How did the Nazis make the Communists unpopular? They would go to the Communist party meetings in disguise and start fighting. Then the SA would enter the meeting and 'control' it, usually with violence.
Who was very happy to see the Communist threat being 'dealt with'? The middle class and businessmen
ii. Use of Technology to aid Propaganda? The Nazis used technology to spread their propaganda. Radio was used for the first time to spread their message
In 1932 how many election speeches did Hitler give in comparison to Hindenburg? While Hindenburg just gave one election speech, Hitler was flown all over Germany in order to speak at four or five massive rallies per day
What propaganda was used to carry the Nazi message into every town and home in Germany? Radio Broadcasts, millions of election posters, rallies, parades and marches
How did the weaknesses of the opposition to the Nazis help them to gain popularity? A very important reason for Hitler gaining support was the weakness and division of the opposition.
What were other parties continually doing? Underestimating the Nazis and often didn't take them seriously at all
Why did the Social Democrats feel quite confident? They had a lot of support and didn't think they had to change to defeat the Nazis.
What did the Nazis never have? The Majority
What did the Nazis take advantage of? The weakness of the opposition
When did Hitler become Chancellor? 30th January 1933