Leukocyte differentiation

Flashcards by , created over 5 years ago

From the 27-09-13 Immunology and Disease lecture.

Created by sophietevans over 5 years ago
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Question Answer
Where do the leukocytes populate? The lymphoid organs, the blood, and the lymph.
What is are the main divisions of leukocytes? They are divided into antigen-specific lymphocytes (which are diverse, specific, capable of memory and self-nonself recognition) and other leukocytes which can be involved in antigen-presenting cells, participating as effector cells in the elimination of antigen by phagocytosis, the secretion of immune effector molecules, and more.
What proportion of bone marrow cells are haematopoietic stem cells? ~1%, fewer than 1 per (5x10^4)
Why are haematopoietic stem cells pluripotent rather than totipotent? They are limited in what they can differentiate into: lymphoid and myeloid progenitors, which can then further differentiate into different blood cells.
Which cells can myeloid progenitors differentiate into? Erythrocytes, granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), platelets, monocytes, and dendritic cells.
Which cells can lymphoid progenitors differentiate into? Lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells.
There are two phenotypes of dendritic cells: CD8α+ and CD8α-. Which progenitors are these differentiated from? dendriticcelldifferentiation.gif (image/gif)
Describe the differentiation possibilities for progenitor cells. Progenitor cells have lost the capacity for self-renewal and are committed to a particular cell lineage.
Stromal cells, where haematopoietic stem cells and their descendants differentiate, grow, and mature, consist of which cell types? Fat cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and macrophages.
How do stromal cells influence the differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells? They provide a haematopoietic-inducing microenvironment, consisting of a cellular matrix and factors that promote growth and differentiation. Many of these are soluble agents that can diffuse to their target cells, whereas others are membrane-bound molecules on the surface of stromal cells that require cell-to-cell contact between the responding cells and the stromal cells.