Ancient Mesopotamia & Egypt

Chad Garner
Flashcards by Chad Garner, updated more than 1 year ago
Chad Garner
Created by Chad Garner over 3 years ago
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Ch.2 Ancient Mesopotamia & Egypt

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Mesopotamia name means "land between the rivers"; where the 1st civilizations began; present day Iraq & Syria
Fertile Crescent the region in the middle east which curves, like a quarter- moon shape; known as the cradle of civilization e32b995d-98d4-4d63-96c8-d503fdab66cf.png (image/png)
polytheistic (a.k.a polytheism) belief in MANY gods; ancient sumerians believed in over 3,000 gods. 99244bfd-07e5-4505-96c5-707e349500a0.jpg (image/jpg)
ziggurat the massive platform that the sumerians built their religious temples on ba29e738-a30f-4adb-96f0-eaaefd6cf529.jpg (image/jpg)
theocracy means "rule by god"; describes a government where the ruler is thought to be a God
cuneiform 1st writing system developed by the sumerians, "wedge shaped writing" 5f168f99-5536-4d20-94d3-3025e41c0b2d.jpg (image/jpg)
Hammurabi's Law Code 1sr written laws; given to people of ancient babylon by king by king hammurabi; very strict laws based on principle of an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth 4d6602f0-0e88-4f3b-bff9-6c79cccbbe38.jpg (image/jpg)
patriarchal describes a society dominated by men
Nile River the longest river in the world; Egypt is often called "the gift of the Nile River"; Egyptians depended on the Nile for everything 40dee3fb-ad0f-4335-b80f-43dfc12d3917.jpg (image/jpg)
Inundation the annual flooding of the Nile River. The flood river leaves behind rich fertile mud
silt rich black mud left behind from the flooding of the Nile river 93441d6e-2a7e-437c-9a36-7bcc7f094b76.jpg (image/jpg)
King Menes King who united Lower and Upper Egypt around 3100 BC 1c80deeb-7381-445f-ba54-794cd5d9f7cb.jpg (image/jpg)
dynasty means "great house of"; a family of rulers
pharaoh name for Egyptian King
"ka" ancient egyptian thought that when someone died the Ka, or the life force, left the physical body; the Ka could drink and eat, but was stuck in the tomb in the body of the mummy or the small statues that were left in the tomb
"Ba" the bas was the part of the soul that embarked on a journey to follow the gods; the symbol of the ba is often shown as a bird with a human head and wings
mummification it was very important to ancient egyptian religious beliefs that the human body was preserved. their method of preserving the body was called mummification. the process lasted up to 70 days b056c6ea-6df6-4f6e-acfc-10db3482bbc8.jpg (image/jpg)
canopic jars containers used to hold the internal organs(lungs, stomach, intestines,liver) of the deceased that was going to be mummified; the jars had lids shaped as the heads of the 4 sons of horus 22c591df-6e32-4ea3-ab3e-670ac4034479.jpg (image/jpg)
sarcophagus formed the outer layer of protection for a royal mummy, with several layers of coffins nested within, and was often carved out of alabaster
king khufu (aka cheops) earned everlasting fame for being the pharaoh responsible for the great pyramid at Giza which he built to serve as his tomb
the great pyramid largest of the 3 pyramids at Giza; built by king khufu; the only monument of the 7 wonders of the ancient world to survive
king khufu's boat discovered in 1952 buried under the great pyramid; it would be needed to ferry king khufu's spirit across the sky to be with Ra, the sun god
Great sphinx one of the largest and oldest statues in the world. archeologists believe that it was carved around 2500 bc and that the head is meant to be the likeness of the Pharaoh Khafra bad66eec-4d2d-4377-872f-c9ddc68312a4.jpg (image/jpg)
hieroglyphics egyptian picture writing
the rosetta stone a stone with writing on it in two languages (egyptian and greek), using three scripts (hieroglyphics, demotic, and Greek)
Hyksos invaded egypt; and ruled for 200 years; introduced the horse drawn chariot
Hatshepsut first great woman ruler in history; she ruled egypt as king not queen. Sculptures and masks show her with a false beard 51d8478a-23fa-41ce-ac19-30c400949b2a.jpg (image/jpg)
Akhenaten rejected the traditional religion in favor of worshipping the aten, or sun disc, after whom he renamed himself. He closed all the temples to the old gods and obliterated their names from monuments
King tut 17 year old boy pharaoh whose tomb survived untouched by grave robbers; more than 3,000 artifacts discovered in his tomb 779737f7-e0e9-4e23-8437-1127c789b337.jpg (image/jpg)
Ramses 2 Ramses the great reigned 67 years; fathered over 100 children; defeated the hittites, the other superpower of ancient times; he declared himself a living god 2db49d1e-691d-4f7d-bc45-394486baa8de.jpg (image/jpg)
papyrus reed like plant that grows on the nile river ancient egyptians used to write on 4787cc51-e830-4633-bc50-da4804ba3f5e.jpg (image/jpg)
cultural diffusion the spreading of ideas from one culture to another culture
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