F322 chains, energy and resources

Flashcards by , created over 5 years ago

chemistry Flashcards on F322 chains, energy and resources, created by kira.kyne on 04/19/2014.

Created by kira.kyne over 5 years ago
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Question Answer
interpret and use the terms: (i) empirical formula as the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound
interpret and use the terms: (ii) molecular formula as the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule,
interpret and use the terms: (iii) general formula as the simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series, ie for an alkane: CnH2n + 2
interpret and use the terms: (iv) structural formula as the minimal detail that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule, eg for butane: CH3CH2CH2CH3 or CH3(CH2)2CH3
intepret and use the terms: (v) displayed formula as the relative positioning of atoms and the bonds between them, ie for ethanol
interpret and use the terms: (vi) skeletal formula as the simplified organic formula, shown by removing hydrogen atoms from alkyl chains, leaving just a carbon skeleton and associated functional groups, ie for butan-2-ol
interpret, and use, the terms: (i) homologous series as a series of organic compounds having the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2
interpret, and use, the terms: (ii) functional group as a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a compound
use the general formula of a homologous series to predict the formula of any member of the series differ by CH2
state the names of the first ten members of the alkanes homologous series methane,ethane,propane,butane, pentane, hexane, heptane, octane, nonane, decane
use IUPAC rules of nomenclature for systematically naming organic compounds systematic naming, ie 2-methylbutan-1-ol
describe and explain the terms: (i) structural isomers compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae
describe and explain the terms: (ii) stereoisomers as compounds with the same structural formula but with a different arrangement in space
describe and explain the terms: (iii) E/Z isomerism as an example of stereoisomerism, in terms of restricted rotation about a double bond and the requirement for two different groups to be attached to each carbon atom of the C=C group
describe and explain in terms: (iv) cis-trans isomerism as a special case of EIZ isomerism in which two of the substituent groups are the same
determine the possible structural formulae and/or stereoisomers of an organic molecule, given its molecular formula ....
describe the different types of covalent bond fission (i) homolytic fission forming two radicals, Cl--Cl---->cl. + cl. breaks evenly (ii) heterolytic fission forming a cation and an anion Cl--Cl ---> Cl+ + Cl-
describe a ‘curly arrow’ as the movement of an electron pair, showing either breaking or formation of a covalent bond
outline reaction mechanisms, using diagrams, to show clearly the movement of an electron pair with ‘curly arrows’ use curly arrows during electrophilic addition and nucleophilic substitution.
carry out calculations to determine the percentage yield of a reaction % yield =(actual yield/predicted yield)X100
explain the atom economy of a reaction as: molecular mass of the desired products /sum of molecular masses of all products X100%;
explain that addition reactions have an atom economy of 100%, whereas substitution reactions are less efficient addition makes 1 product while substitution has 1 desired product and 1 waste product
describe the benefits of developing chemical processes with a high atom economy in terms of fewer waste materials; fewer waste materials, so more product from reactants, more economically viable
explain that a reaction may have a high percentage yield but a low atom economy reactions can produce a high amount of products but they may predominantly be the undesired products so atom economy will be low. must find a compromise between both.
Candidates should be able to: explain that a hydrocarbon is: a compound of hydrogen and carbon only
Candidates should be able to: explain the use of crude oil as a source of hydrocarbons, separated as fractions with different boiling points by fractional distillation, which can be used as fuels or for processing into petrochemicals.
Candidates should be able to: state that alkanes and cycloalkanes are... saturated hydrocarbons
Candidates should be able to: state and explain the tetrahedral shape around each carbon atom in alkanes 936fc2b3-9e5d-4fae-b999-c0a9f72ce7c0.png (image/png)
explain, in terms of van der Waals’ forces, the variations in the boiling points of alkanes with different carbon-chain length and branching more branches, less van der waals' and lower BP longer chain, more van der Waals', higher BP