Biology Topic 4.3

Amy Tourle
Flashcards by Amy Tourle, updated more than 1 year ago
Amy Tourle
Created by Amy Tourle over 3 years ago
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Edexcel new AS level Biology topic 4.3 Quantifying biodiversity

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Question Answer
Define biodiversity. 1. The variety of species that belong to each group of organisms. 2. The variety of alleles within a species.
What are the two names given to each species? The genus and the species name. This is the binomial system created by Linnaeus.
What is the taxonomic hierarchy of groups? Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
What are the five kingdoms? Animalia (multicellular eukaryotes that obtain energy by ingesting material from other organisms) Plantae (multicellular eukaryotes that make their own energy by photosyntheis) Fungi (multicellular eukaryotes that absorb nutrients from dying matter after external digestion) Protoctista (eukaryotes that photosynthesise but are not included in other kingdoms e.g. algae) Prokaryotae (prokaryotic organisms)
How are archaea different from bacteria? They have different RNA sequences. They have no amino sugars in their walls. They have different membrane lipids.
What process do scientists have to go though before their theories become accepted? 1. The scientist posts a paper of their theory in a scientific journal. 2. The paper is peer reviewed. 3. New evidence is gathered. 4. The new theory is gradually accepted.
What is a phylogenetic tree? A diagram which represents the evolutionary relationships between species found by analysing DNA.
What is convergent evolution? Unrelated organisms evolving a similar appearance as they adapt to similar conditions. e.g. sharks and dolphins
What are the six sources of genetic variation? Gene mutations Chromosome mutations Independent assortment Crossing over Mate selection Random fertilisation
What is species richness and species evenness? Richness = the number of species present in a given habitat. Evenness = a measure of biodiversity taking into account the population size of each species.
How do we measure species evenness? What do the letters mean? Using the diversity index equation. N = Total number of organisms in all species. n = Total number of organisms on each species.
What is a biodiversity hotspot? An area with particularly high biodiversity.
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