Long Term Causes of World War 1

Hannah Sohn
Flowchart by Hannah Sohn, updated more than 1 year ago
Hannah Sohn
Created by Hannah Sohn almost 3 years ago
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Description

Source: Access to History for the IB Diploma: Causes, practices and effects of wars by Andy Dailey, Sarah Webb

Resource summary

Flowchart nodes

  • Economic 
  • Political
  • increasing power for countries with abundance of resources
  • SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (1870-1914)
  • Britain -coal, iron, steam power, textiles, cotton {India}
  • Russia- pig iron, steel, railway network however heavily agricultural
  • Germany- railways, iron, steel, big businesses, factories, chemical industry (synthetic dyes)
  • USA- factories, mining, railroads, steel production
  • made most progress, however railway system not as efficient as other countries due to vast size
  • ​​​​​​MILITARISM
  • Insecurities due to economic rivalries and growth of armed forces
  • -iron and steel, manufacturing industry>> production of modern military technology -extensive, efficient railways>> rapid transportation of troops and supplies
  • IMPERIALISM
  • An empire gave economic and political power, and prestige
  • Balkans
  • Russia
  • Serbia
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Ottoman Empire
  • -dominated B. since 1500's -failing strength led to smaller Balkan states>>Serbia (1817) and Bulgaria (1878
  • -big empire in control of much of central, eastern Europe and wanted to further influence in Balkans -clash with Russia and Serbia who promoted pan-Slavism -feared revolt due to multi-ethnic empire with substantial number of Slavic peoples - wanted to create Albania, to prevent threatening, growing Serbia from having access to sea and ports>> hindering economic development
  • - promoted nationalistic vision of BIG, GREAT SERBIA *remember* Serbia is part of the Balkans! - increased militancy  with fierce pro-Russian, nationalistic Karadjordjevic dynasty -victorious in Balkan Wars>> increased territory by 80% - growth threatened others especially Austria- Hungary
  • Balkan Wars (1912-1913) - two wars over possession of European territories of Ottoman Empire -involved Bulgaria, Montenegro, Serbia, Greece, and Ottoman Empire -victory: Serbia
  • Pan-Slavism -"ethnic and linguistic grouping of eastern European peoples whose languages include Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Polish and Czech"
  • - motivated by ideological commitment (nationalism) - pro-Slavism (included Russia!!)  means pro-Serbia and defender of Serbia  - BUT also for political, strategic reasons >> >access for Russian merchant and warships through Black Sea and Mediterranean >limit Austro-Hungarian (rival) territorial expansion
  • Austro-Hungarian and Russian previous conflicts and rivalries in the Balkans - 1878, A.H. mobilized army against Russian influence in the region due to Russo-Turkish War>> >resolved through diplomacy however settlement left Russia dissatisfied, increasing tensions towards Austria-Hungary and Germany (Dual Alliance 1878) - Tensions rose again in 1908>> A.H. annexed region of Bosnia-Hrzegovina >Russia militarily too weak so resolved with diplomatic protest, but made them more determined to prevent further events such as this
  • Moroccan Crises (1905-1911)
  • Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878) -Ottoman vs. Russia -over territorial control in Balkan region -victory:Russia
  • Britain
  • France
  • Germany
  • - increase during rule of Kaiser Wilhelm II (1888) -wanted to be recognized -weltpolitik - threaten French and British imperial interests, who had majority of colonial ports -"we don't put to put anyone else in the shade, but we too demand our place in the sun"      
  • -diplomatic clashes between Germany and France over Morocco (N. Africa considered French Sphere of interest>>supported by Anglo-French Entente [1904]) -1905: France tried to get more control, Germany object - Algericas Conference (1906), Britain and France forced Germany to agree to France's control over Morocco -1911>>same as 1905>>Germany forced to accept French Congo instead>>humiliation  
  • - rivalries and nationalism stimulated "It was the growing military strength of the major powers which made crises generated by imperial rivalries more likely to trigger the outbreak of real hostilities."
  • ALLIANCE SYSTEMS
  • Entente Cordiale, French-Russian military alliance, Anglo-Russian Convention>> Triple Entente
  • -to increase security -countries joined more according to their needs not only for others    
  • Dual>>Triple Alliance
  • -D.A. between Germany and Austria Hungary, 1878 -"largely response to German insecurity" following tensions due to Balkan rivalry -Triple Alliance 1882 >>Italy joins >defensive military alliance (provide military assistance should one be attacked by other Euro powers)
  • -Franco-Russian mil. alliance, 1894 (worried about Germany) - E.C. between Britain and France, 1904 >>series of agreements settling and respecting imperial rivalries and spheres of influence - ​​​​​​Anglo-Russian Convention, 1907 >>similar agreement with E.C. -Triple Entente, 1907 >> not a military alliance​​​
  • Arms/ Naval Race
  • Naval Race -Britain vs. Germany in decade before 1914 -Germany jealous of Britain's Royal Navy, Britain sees Germany as a threat -Britain creates new class of battleship in 1906>>Dreadnought (high tech) -Germany responds by creating own kind of dreadnought in 1908
  • Arms Race -investment in increasing standing armies -Triple Entente had most advantage in terms of size and rate of growth -Germany, the slowest growth
  • Standing Army "A permanent, professional army maintained in times of peace and war
  • LONG TERM CAUSES
  • -anxious Germany key in escalating crisis >> sparks other countries - attitude of 'war sooner the better'
  • MILITARY PLANS
  • Austro-Hungary -danger of multiple front war -Serbia in the south, Russia in the east, and Romania (if joined, they did) ..somewhereidk -weak technologically compared to enemies -hoped for assistance from Germany
  • Germany -danger of two-front war (surrounded by Triple Entente powers) -Schlieffen Plan to avoid two front problem by first attacking French avoiding heavily fortified places and then turning around to attack Russia >>swift movements of hook formations in France >> rapid mobilization crucial
  • France -offensive -concentrated attack through Lorraine on German forces -exaggerated optimism of high officials
  • Britain - relatively small standing army -rapid mobilization to assist France -use navy to destroy German navy, impose blockade on Germany, protect Triple Entente;s supply shipping from attacks by enemy  
  • Russia -early mobilization to compensate for large size however not for threatening reasons like Schlieffen Plan >>dramatically escalates war
  • -importance of the rapid offensive -optimistic military planners expected short war -swift mobilization crucial
  • NATIONALISM "A devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation, often leading to the belief that certain nationalities are superior to others." -decades before, growth in aggressive nationalism -industrial, military, imperialistic developments, rivalry between countries stimulate nationalism -"created an environment in which war..was rather seen as an opportunity to assert dominance." -encouraged feeling of optimistic victory
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