ESL Approaches


ESL Approaches and Methodologies
Diana Hilton
Mind Map by Diana Hilton, updated more than 1 year ago
Diana Hilton
Created by Diana Hilton over 6 years ago

Resource summary

ESL Approaches
  1. Grammatical. Teacher-centered. Emphasis on the rules and structure of target language.
    1. Grammar Translation (Historical)
      1. More emphasis on development of reading, writing and grammar
        1. Less emphasis on oral language development
          1. Rules of grammar are taught hollistically
          2. Direct (Historical)
            1. Focus on total immersion in L2
              1. No use of L1 allowed in the classroom
                1. Involves an open-ended response to materials the teacher brings into the classroom
                  1. STRATEGIES: Drill and Practice Rotate Memorization Dialogue Memorization Repetition Mnemonics Kinetics
                  2. Audiolingual (Historical)
                    1. Grammar structures are carefully sequenced and taught
                      1. Minimal use of L1
                        1. Emphasis error correction, drills and repetitive practice
                        2. Methods
                          1. Techniques: Dialogue Memorization, Repetition, Mnemonics, Kinetics
                          2. Communicative. Student-centered. Emphasis on communication and meaningful acquisition of knowledge.
                            1. Techniques: Reduced use of idioms, manipulatives and realia, Stimulations/big books, Heterogeneous grouping
                              1. Methods
                                1. Silent Way (Historical)
                                  1. Teacher Modeling/Talk
                                    1. Reinforcement thru repetition/signals
                                      1. Seldom content-based
                                      2. Natural Way (Historical)
                                        1. Stresses Comprehensible Input
                                          1. Minimal Error Correction/production
                                            1. Acceptance of students' L1
                                              1. Not necessarily content-based
                                              2. Suggestopedia (Historical)
                                                1. Emphasis on relaxed physical setting
                                                  1. Minimal Error Correction
                                                    1. Use of L1 for explanations
                                                      1. Not necessarily Content Based
                                                      2. Sheltered Instruction (SIOP) (Contemporary)
                                                        1. Grade-level modification curriculum
                                                          1. Scaffolded Instruction
                                                            1. Visuals, Cooperative Learning, Guarded Vocabulary
                                                              1. Strategy: Scaffolding, Guarded Vocabulary
                                                              2. Integrated Content-Based (ICB) (Contemporary)
                                                                1. Emphasizes L2 Development
                                                                  1. Focus on content and language integration
                                                                    1. Subject area integrated into thematic units
                                                                  2. Common Strategies for SIOP and ICB and CALLA: Cooperative Learning, Build on Prior Knowledge, Hands-on activities, Use of Visuals
                                                                  3. Cognitive. Learner-centered. Focus on explicit teaching of learning strategies (LS) in communicative ways.
                                                                    1. Method
                                                                      1. Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)
                                                                        1. Developmentally appropriate language instruction
                                                                          1. Intentional focus on CALP
                                                                            1. Focus on prior knowledge
                                                                              1. Explicit Instruction in the following learning strategies: Metacognitive, Cognitive,. Social/affective
                                                                              1. Techniques: *KWL Chart, Questioning, *Word Walls, *Outlines (*Techniques used also in SIOP method)
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