1.1 Approaches are grounded in a research-based or theoretical
framework. They reflect philosophies of human and mental
development, learning, and language acquisition.
1.2.1 The Grammatical Approach has a
Behaviorist perspective on leaning. It is a
teacher-centered approach that assumes
the learner will acquire language most
efficiently by memorizing language rules
220.127.116.11 IN THE CLASSROOM: Learners study these rules and patterns in ways
that are often isolated from a meaningful context. Drill and practice and
rote memorization are two of the most common strategies used by
teachers for this approach. Students are being taught through
repetition, Mnemonics, and dialogue memorization. We as teachers
know that there is a place for repetition and memorization in the
classroom; however, when it comes to learning a new language, these
students need a connection to something concrete in order for
comprehensible input to take place.
18.104.22.168.1 Methods for the
1.2.2 Communicative Approach
22.214.171.124 Cognitive Approach
126.96.36.199.1 The Cognitive Approach has a Cognitivist
perspective on learning. It is a student-centered
approach to learning. In the past, three general
metaphors have been connected with the
cognitive approach. The first metaphor was
termed "learning as a response acquisition". This
suggested that learning was perceived as a
mechanical process of strengths and weaknesses.
The second metaphor was called "learning as
knowledge acquisition". This suggested that the
learner was a processor of information and the
teacher was a dispenser of information. The third
metaphor was termed "learning as knowledge
construction". According to this view, the learner
changed from a recipient of knowledge to a
constructor of knowledge. It essentially changed
from curriculum-centered to child-centered.
188.8.131.52.1.1 IN THE CLASSROOM: The teacher must develop well planned
lesson plans of meaningful learning as a process that is as much
cognitive as it is biological, cultural, social, interactive,
motivational, and effective. Students need to be engaged in
lessons that promote judging, discovering, recognizing, reasoning,
and reflecting on their class work as well as their own learning.
Higher order strategies should be used to enhance critical
thinking. The teacher needs to include a variety of environmental
factors such as, prior socialization, technology, culture, and
different instructional strategies for this approach to be effective.
184.108.40.206.1.1.1 Methods for the Cognitive
Approach include: CALLA.
CALLA also has many
branches that operate from
the basic belief that all
humans think, seek and
enjoy learning through
interaction with others.
These other methods and
approaches include: literacy
across the curriculum, the
method, balanced reading
method, process writing,
cooperative learning, inquiry, and
220.127.116.11 The Communicative Approach has a
Social-Constructivist perspective on
learning. It is focused on learning language
through and for authentic communication.
Language learners need to use language to
communicate for a purpose. This approach
suggests that language development occurs
as a language learner receives
comprehensible input and creates or tests
hypotheses regarding language use.
18.104.22.168.1 IN THE CLASSROOM: Teachers play a key role in the classroom
during the communicative approach. Teachers provide the students
with a context for authentic communication. Language learners must
interact and use language in an authentic, language-rich, low-anxiety,
language acquisition environment. Students need ample opportunities
and experience in specific contexts. Interaction is extremely
important during this approach. The teacher must provide students
with meaningful social and communicative interaction in the target
22.214.171.124.1.1 Methods for the
Silent Way, Natural
2.1 Methods represent the practical or applied aspect of an
instructional approach. They are the umbrella for the
strategies that one selects and uses based on their
philosophy of instruction.
2.2 Grammatical Method
2.2.1 Direct Method
126.96.36.199 Audiolingual Method
188.8.131.52.1 The Audiolingual method presented pattern drills and dialogue designed to develop grammatical
structures and vocabulary in a very sequenced way. Teachers would correct errors with consistent
feedback. Research suggested that as students practiced these pattern drills and dialogue, the new
language structures would become a habit. The audiolingual method was strictly based on
memorization and recall of language patterns.
184.108.40.206.2 Silent Way
220.127.116.11.2.1 Natural Way
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 Integrated Content-Based
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1 Sheltered Instruction
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1.1 Sheltered Instruction lesson plans include both content objectives and language objectives. Content
objectives derive from the state, local, or national standards. The language objectives derive from the
TESOL standards and are functionally linked to the student's level of English proficiency. Hands-on
activities, social interactions, cooperative learning, guarded vocabulary, and visual support are all included
within this method. The ICB method can be used for grade level students, as well as, emergent bilinguals.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.2.1 Literacy Across the
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1.1 Standards have been set for the local, state, and national levels. Teachers have been provided with these
standards and know WHAT their students are expected to know. They are responsible for teaching this
content throughout the school year. These standards also inform the teacher of what the students should be
able to DO in relation to the content subject at each grade level. Students need to learn this
information in order to be successful in the next grade. EBs need support learning these standards because
many EBs are proficient in BICS before they are proficient in CALP. It is the teacher's job to help these
students make personal connections with this content information.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.2 Inquiry methods are student-centered and require students to construct meaning of ideas and
relationships . Students should be actively engaged in the learning and discovering; they are seen as
co-constructors of knowledge. The teacher must be sure to bring in the students' prior knowledge in order for
students to be influenced to develop their own connections with the information to construct meaning of the
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 Cooperative learning can be done in various ways. The teacher carefully selects and organizes the groups on
learning tasks that are structured so that all students share in the responsibility for completing the task.
Different cooperative learning groups provides ample opportunities for students to engage in active practice
of language and content within a social environment. This allows the students a chance to become independent
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1.1.2 During process writing, students begin to realize that writing involves thinking, reflection, and multiple revisions.
The teacher needs to model the writing process by thinking aloud, jotting down their ideas, organizing them, developing
a draft, reading it to make revisions, asking others for comments or advice, and continuing to work on that piece
until it is finished. This will also allow the teacher to build up confidence for emergent bilinguals.
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.2 Balanced reading shows evidence that students do not learn to read in only one way. Variation in literacy
development is normal and necessary for children to learn to read. The teacher can help these students by
reading aloud , journal writing, story writing, sustained silent reading, discussions about both factual and
inferential information in texts, student choice in reading materials, and frequent conferences with the teacher
and peers about what is being read and written.
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.2 In the Language Experience method, students quickly learn that what is said can be written down and what
is written down can be read. It is key to bring in prior knowledge and prior experience with this method.
Students need this step in order bridge the gaps and make new connections and new ideas. Student talk is
welcome. The teacher should allow the students to discuss prior experiences and encourage them to write
about their experiences. Students can later revisit their writings to develop grammatical structures and
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 Literacy across the curriculum focuses on the language demands of content subjects and seeks to
integrate literacy and content instruction. In this method, ALL teachers, including subject area teachers,
must carry out language-development activities that are associated with their content areas.
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.2.2 The CALLA method is designed to enrich the language that CLD students can use for academic
communication. The CALLA method focuses on three major content areas: the topics from the major content
areas, the development of academic language skills, and explicit instruction in learning strategies.This should
target all four literacy domains (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) in daily content lessons.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.2 The Integrated Content-Based (ICB) method involves the concurrent teaching of academic subject matter
and second language acquisition skills. This method is strictly based on the students' academic and linguistic
needs. This method requires a commitment from everyone involved.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 The Suggestopedia method involved music playing in the background as students were intuitively working. First
the students would read a transalation of text in their native language. Then the teacher would replace the
translation with the new language. Students would work with the text through conversations and retellings.
Visuals and relaxing environment provided support and promoted rapid language acquisition.
126.96.36.199.2.1.2 The Natural way had a specific order. First the teacher created a situation in which communication was
meaningful. Then the teacher communicated information in the new language. This information must be
made comprehensible for the learner. Students spent much of their time building comprehension skills
before they were producing language.
188.8.131.52.2.2 The Silent Way is a method where teachers are silent and provide the learners with simple linguistic situations
that they were to observe and then describe in the target language. This silence is designed to encourage the
students to take initiative, promote language production, and motivate students to interact using
language.The learner's first language was not used. Learners developed their own criteria for the quality of
language acquisition functions.
184.108.40.206 Direct Method focused less on explicit instruction of grammar rules and patterns and more on the
repetition and memorization of the language patterns. Teachers would model and students would
practice language patterns through exposure to carefully guided instruction in the new language. This
method did include vocabulary through dialogues and choral responses, but heavily discouraged
2.2.2 Grammar-translation method focused on grammatical accuracy. It was used as the teacher first
presented the language rules to the students,. The students then memorized the vocabulary list. Then
the students applied the language rules to the translation of the written text. During this method,
translation was not for meaning.