ESL Approaches & Methods

Megan Talton
Mind Map by Megan Talton, updated more than 1 year ago
Megan Talton
Created by Megan Talton about 4 years ago
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ESL Approaches and Methods
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ESL Approaches & Methods
1 Approaches
1.1 Approaches are grounded in a research-based or theoretical framework. They reflect philosophies of human and mental development, learning, and language acquisition.
1.2 Grammatical/Grammar-Based Approach
1.2.1 The Grammatical Approach has a Behaviorist perspective on leaning. It is a teacher-centered approach that assumes the learner will acquire language most efficiently by memorizing language rules and patterns.
1.2.1.1 IN THE CLASSROOM: Learners study these rules and patterns in ways that are often isolated from a meaningful context. Drill and practice and rote memorization are two of the most common strategies used by teachers for this approach. Students are being taught through repetition, Mnemonics, and dialogue memorization. We as teachers know that there is a place for repetition and memorization in the classroom; however, when it comes to learning a new language, these students need a connection to something concrete in order for comprehensible input to take place.
1.2.1.1.1 Methods for the grammatical approach include: Grammar-Translation, Direct, and Audiolingual.
1.2.2 Communicative Approach
1.2.2.1 Cognitive Approach
1.2.2.1.1 The Cognitive Approach has a Cognitivist perspective on learning. It is a student-centered approach to learning. In the past, three general metaphors have been connected with the cognitive approach. The first metaphor was termed "learning as a response acquisition". This suggested that learning was perceived as a mechanical process of strengths and weaknesses. The second metaphor was called "learning as knowledge acquisition". This suggested that the learner was a processor of information and the teacher was a dispenser of information. The third metaphor was termed "learning as knowledge construction". According to this view, the learner changed from a recipient of knowledge to a constructor of knowledge. It essentially changed from curriculum-centered to child-centered.
1.2.2.1.1.1 IN THE CLASSROOM: The teacher must develop well planned lesson plans of meaningful learning as a process that is as much cognitive as it is biological, cultural, social, interactive, motivational, and effective. Students need to be engaged in lessons that promote judging, discovering, recognizing, reasoning, and reflecting on their class work as well as their own learning. Higher order strategies should be used to enhance critical thinking. The teacher needs to include a variety of environmental factors such as, prior socialization, technology, culture, and different instructional strategies for this approach to be effective.
1.2.2.1.1.1.1 Methods for the Cognitive Approach include: CALLA. CALLA also has many branches that operate from the basic belief that all humans think, seek and construct knowledge,and enjoy learning through interaction with others. These other methods and approaches include: literacy across the curriculum, the language experience method, balanced reading method, process writing, cooperative learning, inquiry, and standards-based instruction.
1.2.2.2 The Communicative Approach has a Social-Constructivist perspective on learning. It is focused on learning language through and for authentic communication. Language learners need to use language to communicate for a purpose. This approach suggests that language development occurs as a language learner receives comprehensible input and creates or tests hypotheses regarding language use.
1.2.2.2.1 IN THE CLASSROOM: Teachers play a key role in the classroom during the communicative approach. Teachers provide the students with a context for authentic communication. Language learners must interact and use language in an authentic, language-rich, low-anxiety, language acquisition environment. Students need ample opportunities and experience in specific contexts. Interaction is extremely important during this approach. The teacher must provide students with meaningful social and communicative interaction in the target language.
1.2.2.2.1.1 Methods for the communicative approach include: Silent Way, Natural Way, Suggestopedia, Integrated Content-Based, and Sheltered Instruction.
2 Methods
2.1 Methods represent the practical or applied aspect of an instructional approach. They are the umbrella for the strategies that one selects and uses based on their philosophy of instruction.
2.2 Grammatical Method
2.2.1 Direct Method
2.2.1.1 Audiolingual Method
2.2.1.1.1 The Audiolingual method presented pattern drills and dialogue designed to develop grammatical structures and vocabulary in a very sequenced way. Teachers would correct errors with consistent feedback. Research suggested that as students practiced these pattern drills and dialogue, the new language structures would become a habit. The audiolingual method was strictly based on memorization and recall of language patterns.
2.2.1.1.2 Silent Way
2.2.1.1.2.1 Natural Way
2.2.1.1.2.1.1 Suggestopedia
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1 Integrated Content-Based
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 Sheltered Instruction
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 Sheltered Instruction lesson plans include both content objectives and language objectives. Content objectives derive from the state, local, or national standards. The language objectives derive from the TESOL standards and are functionally linked to the student's level of English proficiency. Hands-on activities, social interactions, cooperative learning, guarded vocabulary, and visual support are all included within this method. The ICB method can be used for grade level students, as well as, emergent bilinguals.
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.2 CALLA
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.2.1 Literacy Across the Curriculum
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 Language Experience
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 Balanced Reading
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 Process Writing
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 Cooperative Learning
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Inquiry
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Standards-Based Instruction
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Standards have been set for the local, state, and national levels. Teachers have been provided with these standards and know WHAT their students are expected to know. They are responsible for teaching this content throughout the school year. These standards also inform the teacher of what the students should be able to DO in relation to the content subject at each grade level. Students need to learn this information in order to be successful in the next grade. EBs need support learning these standards because many EBs are proficient in BICS before they are proficient in CALP. It is the teacher's job to help these students make personal connections with this content information.
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Inquiry methods are student-centered and require students to construct meaning of ideas and relationships . Students should be actively engaged in the learning and discovering; they are seen as co-constructors of knowledge. The teacher must be sure to bring in the students' prior knowledge in order for students to be influenced to develop their own connections with the information to construct meaning of the lesson.
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.2 Cooperative learning can be done in various ways. The teacher carefully selects and organizes the groups on learning tasks that are structured so that all students share in the responsibility for completing the task. Different cooperative learning groups provides ample opportunities for students to engage in active practice of language and content within a social environment. This allows the students a chance to become independent learners.
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.2 During process writing, students begin to realize that writing involves thinking, reflection, and multiple revisions. The teacher needs to model the writing process by thinking aloud, jotting down their ideas, organizing them, developing a draft, reading it to make revisions, asking others for comments or advice, and continuing to work on that piece until it is finished. This will also allow the teacher to build up confidence for emergent bilinguals.
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.2 Balanced reading shows evidence that students do not learn to read in only one way. Variation in literacy development is normal and necessary for children to learn to read. The teacher can help these students by reading aloud , journal writing, story writing, sustained silent reading, discussions about both factual and inferential information in texts, student choice in reading materials, and frequent conferences with the teacher and peers about what is being read and written.
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.2 In the Language Experience method, students quickly learn that what is said can be written down and what is written down can be read. It is key to bring in prior knowledge and prior experience with this method. Students need this step in order bridge the gaps and make new connections and new ideas. Student talk is welcome. The teacher should allow the students to discuss prior experiences and encourage them to write about their experiences. Students can later revisit their writings to develop grammatical structures and vocabulary.
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.2.1.2 Literacy across the curriculum focuses on the language demands of content subjects and seeks to integrate literacy and content instruction. In this method, ALL teachers, including subject area teachers, must carry out language-development activities that are associated with their content areas.
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.2.2 The CALLA method is designed to enrich the language that CLD students can use for academic communication. The CALLA method focuses on three major content areas: the topics from the major content areas, the development of academic language skills, and explicit instruction in learning strategies.This should target all four literacy domains (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) in daily content lessons.
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.2 The Integrated Content-Based (ICB) method involves the concurrent teaching of academic subject matter and second language acquisition skills. This method is strictly based on the students' academic and linguistic needs. This method requires a commitment from everyone involved.
2.2.1.1.2.1.1.2 The Suggestopedia method involved music playing in the background as students were intuitively working. First the students would read a transalation of text in their native language. Then the teacher would replace the translation with the new language. Students would work with the text through conversations and retellings. Visuals and relaxing environment provided support and promoted rapid language acquisition.
2.2.1.1.2.1.2 The Natural way had a specific order. First the teacher created a situation in which communication was meaningful. Then the teacher communicated information in the new language. This information must be made comprehensible for the learner. Students spent much of their time building comprehension skills before they were producing language.
2.2.1.1.2.2 The Silent Way is a method where teachers are silent and provide the learners with simple linguistic situations that they were to observe and then describe in the target language. This silence is designed to encourage the students to take initiative, promote language production, and motivate students to interact using language.The learner's first language was not used. Learners developed their own criteria for the quality of language acquisition functions.
2.2.1.2 Direct Method focused less on explicit instruction of grammar rules and patterns and more on the repetition and memorization of the language patterns. Teachers would model and students would practice language patterns through exposure to carefully guided instruction in the new language. This method did include vocabulary through dialogues and choral responses, but heavily discouraged translation.
2.2.2 Grammar-translation method focused on grammatical accuracy. It was used as the teacher first presented the language rules to the students,. The students then memorized the vocabulary list. Then the students applied the language rules to the translation of the written text. During this method, translation was not for meaning.
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