ESL Methods and Approaches

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ESL Method and Aproaches

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ESL Methods and Approaches
1 Grammatical Based Approach


  • All three of the methods classified under the Grammatical Based Approach are considered historical and no longer used in the second language classroom
1.1 Grammar-Translation Method
1.1.1 Emphasis on developing reading, writing and grammar
1.1.2 Little emphasis on oral language
1.1.3 Grammar rules taught holistically
1.1.4 Translated text to focus on grammatical accuracy, not for meaning
1.1.5 Replaced by the direct method in the 1940s
1.2 Direct Method
1.2.1 Focus on total immersion into the second language
1.2.2 No use of first language was allowed in the classroom
1.2.3 Less focus on grammar rules and more focus on memorization of language patterns
1.2.4 Some emphasis was placed on context through the use of pictures, objects, and diagrams
1.2.5 Considered historical and no longer used in the second language classroom
1.3 Audiolingual Method
1.3.1 Grammatical structures are sequenced then taught
1.3.2 Very little use of first language in the classroom
1.3.3 Focused on error correction through consistent feedback, drills, and repetitive practice
1.3.4 Developed in response for the rapid need of second language acquisition during World War II
1.3.5 Considered historical and no longer used in the second language classroom
2 Communicative Approach
2.1 Silent Way Method
2.1.1 Teacher reinforcement through repetition and signals
2.1.2 Very little content-based instruction
2.1.3 No use of first language in the classroom
2.1.4 Teacher models/ talks
2.1.5 Considered historical and no longer used in the second language classroom
2.2 Natural Way Method
2.2.1 Focused on comprehensible input
2.2.2 Very little error correction or production
2.2.3 Accepted students' first language
2.2.4 Silent period was recognized and accepted
2.2.5 Created the foundation for the sheltered method of instruction
2.2.6 Is used in some foreign language classroom, but is not widespead in US public schools
2.3 Suggestopedia
2.3.1 Emphasized a relaxed, stress-free setting
2.3.2 Very little error correction
2.3.3 Used first language in the classroom as a means of explanation
2.3.4 Considered historical/ Did not experience widespread use
2.4 Integrated Content Based Method
2.4.1 Emphasizes second language developement
2.4.2 Integrates content and language
2.4.3 Subject area integrated into thematic units
2.4.4 Curriculum is based on students' academic and language needs
2.5 Sheltered Instruction Method
2.5.1 Grade level modified curriculum
2.5.2 Scaffolded instruction
2.5.3 Visuals
2.5.4 Cooperative learning
2.5.5 Guarded vocabulary
2.5.6 Integrates language and content objectives into lesson
3 Cognitive Approach
3.1 CALLA (Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach)
3.1.1 Developmentally appropriate language instruction
3.1.2 Develops CALP in both first and second language as related to content area
3.1.3 Focuses on prior knowledge
3.1.4 Explicit instruction in learning strategies Cognitive Metacognitive Social/affective
3.1.5 Scaffolded instruction
3.1.6 Extensive contextual suport
3.1.7 Reduced linguistic demands
3.1.8 Develops academic language in all four literacy domains (listening, speaking, reading, and writing
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