ESL Approaches & Methods

lyndsey_aulsbroo
Mind Map by lyndsey_aulsbroo, updated more than 1 year ago
lyndsey_aulsbroo
Created by lyndsey_aulsbroo about 4 years ago
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This is a mindmap of the approaches and methods for EB instruction.
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ESL Approaches & Methods
1 Grammatical
1.1 Teacher centered
1.2 Learners acquire language by memorizing rules and sentence patterns Ex: drill and practice, study nouns, verb conjugation, adjectives, possessives, and pronouns
1.2.1 Does not offer comprehensible input *Research has shown that EBs who receive grammar based ESL instruction do much worse on standardized tests
1.3 Learner's L1 is viewed as interfering with the acquisition of L2 due to the differences between structure and syntax rules
1.4 Behaviorist approach; Now considered a historical artifact, Replaced by communicative and cognitive aprroaches
1.5 Methods
1.5.1 Grammar-Translation
1.5.1.1 Teacher presents language rules to students
1.5.1.2 Students memorize vocabulary list
1.5.1.3 Students apply the rules, exceptions, and vocabulary list to translate written text
1.5.1.3.1 Translate isolated sentences at first, then complex text
1.5.1.3.2 Not for meaning
1.5.2 Direct
1.5.2.1 Replaced the Grammar-Translation Method by 1940s
1.5.2.2 Students inferred grammar through exposure to guided instruction in the target language
1.5.2.2.1 Teachers modeled and students practiced language patterns to internalize those patterns
1.5.2.2.2 Vocabulary was taught in context through dialogue and choral response
1.5.2.3 Focused on repetition and memorization of language patterns
1.5.2.4 Translation was heavily discouraged
1.5.2.5 Placed emphasis on objects, photos, diagrams, and drawings
1.5.3 Audiolingual
1.5.3.1 Students memorized and recalled patterns of language
1.5.3.2 Teachers provided consistent feedback through the reinforcement of accurate production and error correction
1.5.3.3 Was developed in response to U.S. troops needing to speak foreign languages because they were destined to work overseas during WW II
1.6 Examples: EBs Memorize dialogue, repetition, and patterns in the classroom
1.7 Deductive language instruction
2 Communicative
2.1 EBs use language to communicate for a purpose; EBs need meaningful social and communicative interaction in the target language
2.2 Student-centered, teacher provides context for authentic communication
2.3 Examples: EBs use manipulatives, realia, big books, and heterogeneous grouping in the classroom through this approach
2.4 Inductive language instruction
2.5 Early Methods
2.5.1 Silent Way
2.5.1.1 Learners were presented with simple linguistic situations to observe and then describe in the target language
2.5.1.2 Teachers used silence to encourage student initiative and language production; pronunciation was emphasized
2.5.2 Natural Way
2.5.2.1 The silent period was respected; Language learners spent much of their time building comprehension skills before they were prompted to produce language.
2.5.2.2 Instruction followed a very specific order: 1) Teacher created a situation where communication was meaningful. 2) Teacher gives information in target language. 3) Teacher makes sure input is comprehensible.
2.5.3 Suggestopedia
2.5.3.1 Designed to place just as much emphasis on learner personality and motivation as it does on intellect
2.5.3.2 Music is used often; This approach practices the belief that positive suggestion would make the learner more receptive which would stimulate learning.
2.5.3.3 Learners work through text with conversations, retelling, and role playing
2.6 Contemporary Methods
2.6.1 Integrated Content Based
2.6.1.1 Combines teaching of academic content with 2nd language acquisition skills
2.6.1.2 Teachers use thematic units with content and language objectives; L1 is accepted; Students work with peers in order to assist each other.
2.6.1.3 EBs with limited ELP are allowed to use gestures and draw. EBs use Venn diagrams, KWL charts, and T-charts to construct meaning in the classroom.
2.6.2 Sheltered Instruction
2.6.2.1 Language and content objectives are integrated; Content objectives are derived from the curriculum; Language objectives are derived from practice standards, such as TESOL. EBs receive grade level content while teachers provide scaffolded instruction with comprehensible input based on L2 proficiency.
2.6.2.2 EBs use hands-on manipulatives, social interactions, and cooperative learning. Teachers provide EBs with guarded vocabulary and visual support.
2.7 Focuses on learning language through and for communication
2.7.1 This approach is where the shift from behaviorist to constructivist occurred. The role of the educator went from purveyor of knowledge to the facilitator of meaning construction.
3 Cognitive
3.1 Inductive language instruction
3.2 Learner-centered focus on explicitly teaching learning strategies to be used in communicative ways
3.3 Second language acquisition is a conscious and reasoned thinking process through this approach. Language learning through and for authentic communication
3.4 Constructivist approach: Ebs construct meaning from information and experience, link new information to existing knowledge, and create and use an array of strategies to reach goals;
3.5 An emergent product of efforts to examine and analyze the cognitive psychological side of learning, language learning, and instruction to promote language learning
3.6 Methods
3.6.1 CALLA
3.6.1.1 3 Components 1) topics from the major content areas 2) the development of academic language skills 3) explicit instruction in learning strategies
3.6.1.2 Focuses on explicitly teaching EBs to understand and apply metacognitive, cognitive, and social/affective strategies; designed to further the abilities of EBs to comprehend discourse in all content areas and be academically successful.
3.6.1.2.1 Metacognitive- KWL charts, and self-monitoring where EBs monitor their use of strategies
3.6.1.2.2 Cognitive- EBs draw on background knowledge and prior experiences to make connections, and practice predictions and making inferences.
3.6.1.2.3 Social/affective- EBs ask questions to clarify and comprehend; EBs work with peers in collaborative groups which help to maximize social and communicative interaction.
3.6.1.3 Focuses on all 4 domains: listening, speaking, reading, and writing
3.6.1.3.1 Instruction should be guided by how students think, learn, and interact. This influences the choice of classroom activities.
3.6.1.4 Instructional Innovations
3.6.1.4.1 Literacy Across the Curriculum: Focuses on language demands of content subjects and seeks to integrate literacy and content instruction. EBs practice language development in ALL subjects.
3.6.1.4.2 Language Experience Approach: EBs learn that was is said can be written down and that what has been written down, can be read. Students prior personal experience must be used to bridge new concepts in this model.
3.6.1.4.3 Balanced Reading Approach: Reading instruction should be tailored to meet student's needs based on their preferred approach to initial reading. Phonics instruction is combined with reading authentic texts. Ex: journal writing, student choice in book selection, and teacher-student conferences.
3.6.1.4.4 Process Writing: EBs learn that writing involves thinking, reflection, and revision. Teachers model writing strategies for EBs. Ex: think alouds, organizing, drafting, revisions, and comments.
3.6.1.4.5 Standards-Based Instruction: Lesson topics are based on national/state standards in all content subjects. It identifies what students should know and be able to do at each grade level. Many EBs will need extra support due to needing more academic language. Ex: CCRS, TESOL
3.6.1.4.6 Cooperative Learning: EBs work in carefully selected groups on learning tasks to share in the responsibility of completing the task. Students help each other and talk.
3.6.1.4.7 Inquiry Approach: Any activity aimed at extracting meaning from experience. Students ask questions and identify problems, develop a plan, gather resources , analyze and summarize information, draw conclusion and report findings, and reflect.
3.7 Strong emphasis is placed on the learner's background, interactions, memory, knowledge, thinking process, and capacity to self-regulate; These are the foundations for success in language acquisition and academic context.
4 1. 19th century origins
5 2. 1960s and 70s origins
6 3. 1980s and 90s origins
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