1.1 Electrostatic attraction between
two oppositely charged ions.
1.2 Giant Ionic Lattice
1.2.1 High melting and boiling point due
to strong ionic bonds.
1.2.2 In solid state, it does not conduct
electricity because the ions are in a fixed
1.2.3 In melted or molten state, it conducts
electricity because the lattice breaks
down and the ions are free to move.
1.2.4 Dissolves in polar solvents.
22.214.171.124 When NaCl is dissolved in water, the water
molecules attract Na+ and Cl- ions. The water
molecules surround the ions. Na+ attracts delta
negative charges on the Oxygen atoms and Cl-
attracts the delta positive charges on the
1.2.6 A three dimensional structure
held together by electrostatic
attraction between oppositely
2 Covalent Bonding
2.1 Simple Molecular Structure
2.1.1 In a solid, molecules are held together by weak Van Der Waals'
forces between molecules, the atoms within each molecule are
bonded together strongly by covalent bonds.
2.1.2 Low melting and boiling point because there are weak
Van Der Waals' forces and you only need a small
amount of energy to break them.
2.1.3 They do not conduct electricity because
there are no free moving charged
2.1.4 Soluble in non polar molecules such as Hexane.
2.1.5 A three dimensional structure of
molecules, bonded together by weak
2.2 Giant Covalent Lattice
2.2.1 Held together by strong covalent bonds, no forces as
no defined molecule.
2.2.2 Diamond, Graphite and Silicon Dioxide are examples.
2.2.3 High melting and boiling points because high
temperatures are needed to break the strong covalent
bonds in the lattice.
2.2.4 It does not conduct electricity because there
are no free moving, charged particles.
2.2.5 They are completely insoluble as the bonds
are too strong to be broken by polar and
non polar solvents.
126.96.36.199 Tetrahedral structure held together
by strong covalent bonds throughout
188.8.131.52.1 No conductivity as there are no
184.108.40.206.1.1 Hard because the tetrahedral shape allows
the external forces to be spread throughout
220.127.116.11 Strong hexagonal layered structure
with Van der Waals forces between
18.104.22.168.1 Because there are delocalised
electrons between layers, there
is good conductivity.
22.214.171.124.1.1 Bonding within each layer is strong
but weak forces between the layers
allow the layers to slide easily.
2.3 A shared pair of electrons
3 Metallic Bonding
3.1 Electrostatic attraction between positive metal
ions and delocalised electrons.
3.2 Delocalised electrons are shared
between more than two atoms.
3.3 Giant Metallic Lattice
3.3.1 High melting and boiling points, the electrons
are free to move throughout the structure by the
postiive ions remain in place. They are needed to
break the bond and dislodge the ion from its rigid
3.3.2 The delocalised electrons can move freely
so the metal can conduct electricity even in
3.3.3 Ductile means stretchy, and this allows
the metal to be drawn into wires.
3.3.4 Malleable means hammered into shape, metals can
be pressed into shapes or hammered into thin
3.3.5 They are soft because the delocalised electrons can
move, this allows layers to slide past each other
3.4.1 Mixture of metals; they press
freely together by do not
become a compound because
they can mix in different