Transport in animals

Gurdev Manchanda
Mind Map by Gurdev Manchanda, updated more than 1 year ago
Gurdev Manchanda
Created by Gurdev Manchanda about 5 years ago
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Description

AS UNIT F211, module 2 transport in animals. unfinished

Resource summary

Transport in animals
1 the circulatory system
1.1 multicellular organisms need transport systems
1.1.1 relatively large = low surface area to volume ratio
1.1.1.1 diffusion isn't efficient enough
1.1.2 very active
1.1.2.1 large no. cells respiring quickly = need a constant, rapid supply of glucose and oxygen
1.1.2.1.1 Diffusion isn't efficient enough
1.1.2.1.1.1 cannot supply cells in centre fast enough using diffusion
1.2 systems
1.2.1 single circulatory system
1.2.1.1 FISH
1.2.1.1.1 gills
1.2.1.1.1.1 heart
1.2.1.1.1.1.1 rest of body
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 gills
1.2.1.2 only pass through heart once
1.2.2 double circulatory system
1.2.2.1 pass through heart twice
1.2.2.2 MAMMELS
1.2.2.2.1 heart
1.2.2.2.1.1 lungs
1.2.2.2.1.1.1 heart
1.2.2.2.1.1.2 PULMONARY LOOP
1.2.2.2.1.2 body
1.2.2.2.1.2.1 SYSTEMIC SYSTEM
1.2.3 open circulatory system
1.2.3.1 blood isn't always enclosed in blood vessels
1.2.3.2 flows freely through the body cavity
1.2.3.3 INSECTS
1.2.3.3.1 HEART
1.2.3.3.1.1 main artery
1.2.3.3.1.1.1 body cavity
1.2.3.3.1.1.1.1 blood flows around insects organs
1.2.3.3.1.1.1.2 heart
1.2.4 closed circulatory system
1.2.4.1 blood enclosed inside blood vessels
1.2.4.2 FISH
1.2.4.2.1 arteries
1.2.4.2.1.1 capillaries
1.2.4.2.1.1.1 veins
1.2.4.2.1.1.1.1 heart
1.2.4.2.1.1.2 substances - glucose and oxygen- diffuse
1.2.4.2.1.1.2.1 body cells
2 heart basics
2.1 structure
2.1.1 septum
2.1.1.1 separates ventricles
2.1.1.2 oxygenated and deoxygenated blood separated
2.1.2 valves
2.1.2.1 tendinous cords
2.1.2.1.1 attach valves to walls
2.1.2.1.2 prevent valves from turning inside out
2.1.2.2 AV valve
2.1.2.2.1 fill up, then pour into ventricles when it contracts
2.1.2.2.2 atrial contraction - valves open
2.1.2.2.2.1 bp in atria higher than bp in ventricles
2.1.2.2.3 ventricular contraction - valves clolse
2.1.2.2.3.1 bp in ventricles higher than bp in atria
2.1.2.3 SL valve
2.1.2.3.1 base of major arteries
2.1.2.3.2 prevents backflow as ventricles relax
2.1.2.4 fill w/blood then shut
2.1.3 atria
2.1.3.1 ventricles
2.1.3.1.1 thinner muscle
2.1.3.1.1.1 only transfer blood to ventricles
2.1.4 ventricles
2.1.4.1 right
2.1.4.1.1 lungs
2.1.4.1.1.1 thinner wall than left
2.1.4.1.1.1.1 high pressure could easily burst the capillaries
2.1.4.2 left
2.1.4.2.1 wall x2-3 thicker than right
2.1.4.2.1.1 higher blood pressure to overcome the resistance of systemic circulation
3 electrical activity of the heart
4 blood vessels
4.1 tissue fluid
4.1.1 formed from blood
4.1.2 forms lymph
4.1.3 surrounds cells in tissue
4.1.4
4.2 capillaries
4.2.1 single cell wall
4.2.1.1 decreased diffusion gradient
4.3 veins
4.4 arteries
4.4.1 coronary arteries
4.4.1.1 lie over surface of heart
4.4.1.1.1 carry oxygenated to heart
4.4.1.1.2 constricted
4.4.1.1.2.1 reduced blood flow to heart
4.4.1.1.2.1.1 reduce oxygen to heart
4.4.1.1.2.1.1.1 angina/ heart attack
4.5 lymph vessels
5 haemoglobin
5.1 structure
5.1.1 4 polypeptide chains
5.1.1.1 haem group
5.1.1.1.1 iron
5.2 the bohr shift
5.2.1 actively respiring tissue = need more oxygen
5.2.2 move curve to RIGHT
5.2.3 decreased affinity for oxygen
5.2.4
5.3 fetal haemogolobin
5.3.1 placenta = lower ppO2
5.3.1.1 must be able to saturate its haemoglobin w/ oxygen
5.3.1.2 must have higher affinity for oxygen
5.3.2 move curve to LEFT
5.4
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