1.1.1 Classical conditioning- Food produces
pleasure. The feeder (mother)is associated
with food and so also produces pleasure.
1.1.2 Operant conditioning- Food is a
primary reinforcer, so the feeder
becomes a secondary reinforcer.
1.2.1 In the Efe tribe, the child would
sleep with the mother but be
cared for and fed by oter women.
However, the primary attachment
was still usually the mother.
1.2.2 We learn through conditioning, however
food is not the only factor; attention and
responsiveness are also important.
1.3.1 Harlow showed that food is less important when
forming attachments than contact comfort.
1.3.2 Schaffer and Emerson found that infants were not
necessarily attached to the adult that fed them.
2.1 Attachment is adaptive and
innate- related to imprinting.
126.96.36.199 Lorenz found that imprinting
is innate because the goslings
imprinted on the first moving
object they saw, e.g. the goose
or Lorenz himself.
188.8.131.52 Hodges and Tizard proved there is a
sensitive period as they found once this
stage has passed children found it harder to
form attachment with peers.
184.108.40.206 Schaffer and Emerson found that infants had multiple
attachments (hierarchy) , but only one primary attachment
220.127.116.11 Schaffer and Emerson found that strongly attached
infants had mothers who responded quickly to their
demands and offered their child the most interaction.
18.104.22.168 The Minnesota Longitudinal
study has followed
participants from infancy to
adolescence and has found
continuity between early
attachment and later
supporting the continuity
22.214.171.124 Rutter found that all attachment figures are equally important.
126.96.36.199 Grossman and Grossman alluded to the
concept that fathers play a key role in social
188.8.131.52 The temperament hypothesis contradicts the continuity hypothesis. It suggests
that certain personality or temperamental characteristics in the infant can
shape a mothers responsiveness.