How We Store Genetic Information

Rebecca Pay
Mind Map by Rebecca Pay, updated more than 1 year ago
Rebecca Pay
Created by Rebecca Pay over 1 year ago
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How we store genetic information.

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How We Store Genetic Information
1 Chromosomes
1.1 Consist of 2 arms (chromatids) joined by a specialised structure at the centre called a centromere.
1.2 Karyotype - the array of human chromosomes.
1.3 22 homologous pairs of chromosomes.
1.4 Sex chromosomes - Female XX, male XY. Autosomes - all other chromosomes.
1.5 Each chromosome contains a single molecule of DNA.
2 Genes
2.1 Allele - known variations of a particular gene.
2.2 DNA: a. carries genetic information that is used to synthesise proteins; b. it's structure can be easily duplicated/replicated; c. is relatively stable.
2.3 DNA is a double-stranded molecule, the strands are made up of nucleotides (sugar, base and phosphate). Base pairings - A:T (U in RNA), C:G.
2.4 Dominant disorders - requires only one defective copy (allele) of the gene.
2.5 Recessive disorders - requres two defective copies (alleles) of the gene.
3 Each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 total).
3.1 Each of the 24 (22 of the same, 23 (X) and 24 (Y)) different types of chromosomes contain different genes.
3.1.1 Each homologous pair of chromosomes (22 autosomes, and X chromosomes in females) contain the same genes in the same order - so each gene is present twice in the nucleus of every cell.
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