cognitive psychology

Georgia Sargent
Mind Map by Georgia Sargent, updated more than 1 year ago
Georgia Sargent
Created by Georgia Sargent about 5 years ago
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A-Level Psychology Mind Map on cognitive psychology, created by Georgia Sargent on 01/10/2015.

Resource summary

cognitive psychology
1 models of memory
1.1 multi store model
1.1.1 Atkinson and Shiffrin
1.1.1.1 1968
1.1.2 sensory memory
1.1.2.1 holds information in relatively unprocessed way
1.1.2.2 fractions of a second after the physical stimulus is no longer there
1.1.2.3 used for watching a film to make sense of one still image to the next
1.1.3 short term memory
1.1.3.1 elements
1.1.3.1.1 encoding
1.1.3.1.1.1 the way that sensory input is represented in STM
1.1.3.1.1.2 factors affecting encoding of STM
1.1.3.1.1.2.1 sound of words
1.1.3.1.1.2.2 acoustic is preferred in STM
1.1.3.1.1.3 Brandimonte, 1992
1.1.3.1.1.3.1 aim
1.1.3.1.1.3.1.1 influence of visual process on encoding
1.1.3.1.1.3.2 procedure
1.1.3.1.1.3.2.1 6 drawings of familiar objects and asked to removed certain parts
1.1.3.1.1.3.2.2 create mental image and subtract part of it. then rename
1.1.3.1.1.3.3 findings
1.1.3.1.1.3.3.1 could name 2.7 times out of 6
1.1.3.1.1.3.3.2 better than those repeating meaningless chant
1.1.3.1.1.3.4 evaluation
1.1.3.1.1.3.4.1 lacks eco validity
1.1.3.1.1.3.4.2 cant be generalised for all images
1.1.3.1.1.3.4.3 same 6 images
1.1.3.1.2 duration
1.1.3.1.2.1 the length of time that information can be held in STM
1.1.3.1.2.2 factors affecting duration of STM
1.1.3.1.2.2.1 maintenance rehearsal
1.1.3.1.2.2.2 deliberate intention to recall
1.1.3.1.2.2.3 amount of information to be retained
1.1.3.1.2.3 Peterson and Peterson (1959)
1.1.3.1.2.3.1 aim
1.1.3.1.2.3.1.1 to test how long STM lasts when rehearsal is prevented
1.1.3.1.2.3.2 procedure
1.1.3.1.2.3.2.1 shown a trigram
1.1.3.1.2.3.2.2 count backwards in 3s from specific number
1.1.3.1.2.3.2.3 after 3,6,9,12,15 or 18 secs intervals had to recall
1.1.3.1.2.3.3 findings
1.1.3.1.2.3.3.1 recall 80% of trigrams after 3 secs
1.1.3.1.2.3.3.2 fewer trigrams as longer time
1.1.3.1.2.3.3.3 18 secs less than 10%
1.1.3.1.2.3.4 conclusion
1.1.3.1.2.3.4.1 less items recalled after longer time
1.1.3.1.2.3.5 evaluation
1.1.3.1.2.3.5.1 trigrams are artificial
1.1.3.1.2.3.5.1.1 don't fully reflect
1.1.3.1.2.3.5.2 interferece from previous trigrams after recall not just decay
1.1.3.1.3 capacity
1.1.3.1.3.1 the amount of information that can be stored in STM at any one time
1.1.3.1.3.2 factors affecting capacity of STM
1.1.3.1.3.2.1 influence of LTM
1.1.3.1.3.2.1.1 information stored in the LTM is helping to increase STM capacity temporarily
1.1.3.1.3.2.2 reading aloud
1.1.3.1.3.2.2.1 if participant reads the digits aloud before recall, performance is better than when they simply read them withoout speaking to themselves
1.1.3.1.3.2.3 rhythmic grouping
1.1.3.1.3.2.3.1 performance improves if the numbers are grouped together rhythmically
1.1.3.1.3.2.3.1.1 explains why we divide up telephone numbers
1.1.3.1.3.2.4 pronunciation time
1.1.3.1.3.2.4.1 some words are longer than others
1.1.3.1.3.2.4.1.1 arabic compared to english
1.1.3.1.3.3 Baddeley et al. (1975)
1.1.3.1.3.3.1 aim
1.1.3.1.3.3.1.1 to see if people could remember more short words than long words in a serial recall test
1.1.3.1.3.3.1.1.1 demonstrate that it is pronunciation time that determines capacity rather than number of items
1.1.3.1.3.3.2 procedure
1.1.3.1.3.3.2.1 the reading speed was measured
1.1.3.1.3.3.2.2 Ps. were presented with sets of 5 words on a screen
1.1.3.1.3.3.2.3 the words were taken from either one-syllable or poly-syllable sets
1.1.3.1.3.3.2.4 Ps. were asked to write down the 5 words in order immediately after presentaion. they recalled several lists of both sets.
1.1.3.1.3.3.3 findings
1.1.3.1.3.3.3.1 recalled more short than long words
1.1.3.1.3.3.3.2 recall as many words as could say in 2 secs
1.1.3.1.3.3.3.3 strong positive correlation between reading speed and memory span
1.1.3.1.3.3.4 conclusion
1.1.3.1.3.3.4.1 immediate memory span represents the number of items of whatever length that can be articulated in approximately 2 seconds
1.1.3.1.3.3.5 evaluation
1.1.3.1.3.3.5.1 might be that short words are easier to recall than long words because they are more familar
1.1.3.1.3.3.5.2 used unconnected words so didn't reflect everyday use of the STM
1.1.3.1.3.3.5.3 lab experiment --> high control
1.1.3.1.3.3.5.3.1 length of time each condition was seen for was able to be kept the same
1.1.4
1.1.5 one-way (linear) flow of information
1.1.6 unitary, separate stores
1.1.7 long term memory
1.1.7.1 elements
1.1.7.1.1 encoding
1.1.7.1.1.1 Baddeley (1966)
1.1.7.1.1.1.1 aim
1.1.7.1.1.1.1.1 explore the effects of acoustic or semantic encoding
1.1.7.1.1.1.2 procedure
1.1.7.1.1.1.2.1 divided into 4 groups each group shown 10 words from one of the following lists:
1.1.7.1.1.1.2.1.1 acoustically similiar
1.1.7.1.1.1.2.1.2 acoustically dissimiliar
1.1.7.1.1.1.2.1.3 semantically similiar
1.1.7.1.1.1.2.1.4 semantically dissimiliar
1.1.7.1.1.1.2.2 after 20 mins doing another task Ps. asked to recall in order.
1.1.7.1.1.1.2.3 carried out 4 times
1.1.7.1.1.1.3 findings
1.1.7.1.1.1.3.1 recall for semantically similar than sissimilar
1.1.7.1.1.1.3.2 acoustic same for both
1.1.7.1.1.1.4 conclusion
1.1.7.1.1.1.4.1 LTM uses semantic encoding generally
1.1.7.1.1.1.5 evaluation
1.1.7.1.2 duration
1.1.7.1.2.1 factors affecting duration of LTM
1.1.7.1.2.1.1 childhood amnesia
1.1.7.1.2.1.1.1 young children bad at organising and intergrating memories
1.1.7.1.2.1.2 how duration is measured
1.1.7.1.2.1.2.1 recognition better than free recall
1.1.7.1.2.1.3 thorough learning
1.1.7.1.2.2 Bahrick et al. (1975)
1.1.7.1.2.2.1 aim
1.1.7.1.2.2.1.1 establish the existence of very long term memory and see whether there was any difference between recognition and recall
1.1.7.1.2.2.2 procedure
1.1.7.1.2.2.2.1 investigators tracked down graduates of a high school over a 50 year period
1.1.7.1.2.2.2.2 392 graduates shown pics from high school
1.1.7.1.2.2.2.3 recognition group: match name with pic
1.1.7.1.2.2.2.4 recall group: name people in pics
1.1.7.1.2.2.3 findings
1.1.7.1.2.2.3.1 recognition
1.1.7.1.2.2.3.1.1 90% -- 14 years 80% -- 25 years 75% -- 34 years 60% -- 47 years
1.1.7.1.2.2.3.2 recall
1.1.7.1.2.2.3.2.1 60% -- 7 years >20% -- 47 years
1.1.7.1.2.2.4 conclusion
1.1.7.1.2.2.4.1 certain types of info for almost a lifetime
1.1.7.1.2.2.4.2 VLTM better in recognition than recall
1.1.7.1.2.2.5 evaluation
1.1.7.1.2.2.5.1 meaningful stimulus --> memories of own life
1.1.7.1.2.2.5.2 drop at 47 due to general decline or limit of duration??
1.1.8 strengths
1.1.8.1 matches with the processes people experience in real life
1.1.8.2 explains memory stores in terms of capacity, duration and encoding
1.1.8.3 MRI scans of different tasks back up ideas
1.1.8.4 brain damage supports separate memory stores
1.1.9 weaknesses
1.1.9.1 too simple
1.1.9.2 brain damage shows that STM can be bypassed
1.2 working memory model
1.2.1 central executive
1.2.1.1 problem solving and decision making
1.2.1.2 controls attention
1.2.1.3 flexible
1.2.1.4 limited storage capacity
1.2.2 phonological loop
1.2.2.1 acoustically encoded items
1.2.3 visuo-spatial sketch pad
1.2.3.1 mental images
1.2.4 episodic buffer
1.2.4.1 temporary storage system that allows information from the slave systems to be combined with information from the LTM
1.2.5 strengths
1.2.5.1 explains how we store and process information unlike the multi store model
1.2.5.2 Baddeley has evidence for the phonological loop (1975)
1.2.5.3 Baddeley has evidence for sketch pad (1973)
1.2.6 weaknesses
1.2.6.1 know very little about central executive ( most important part)
1.2.6.2 richardson (1984) argues that it is difficult to identify the function f the central executive
2 EWT
2.1 factors affecting EWT
2.1.1 anxiety
2.1.1.1 Loftus (1979)
2.1.1.1.1 aim
2.1.1.1.1.1 to find out if anxiety during a witnessed incident affects the accuracy of later identification
2.1.1.1.2 procedure
2.1.1.1.2.1 2 situations
2.1.1.1.2.1.1 1)) low key discussion. person comes out with a pen and grease on him
2.1.1.1.2.1.2 2)) heated discussion, breaking glass, chairs, paper knife covered in blood
2.1.1.1.2.2 Ps. had to identify the man from photos
2.1.1.1.3 findings
2.1.1.1.3.1 1)) 49% accuracy
2.1.1.1.3.2 2)) 33% accuracy
2.1.1.1.4 evaluation
2.1.1.1.4.1 lab study
2.1.1.1.4.1.1 may lack ecological validity
2.1.1.1.4.2 later research supports finding
2.1.1.1.4.3 ethics
2.1.1.1.4.3.1 deception
2.1.1.1.4.3.2 upset by seeing bloodstained paperknife
2.1.1.1.5 conclusion
2.1.1.1.5.1 concentrates on weapon which distracts from appearance of man. the anxiety of the weapon narrows attention and gives rise to very accurate recall of the central details, but less about other things
2.1.1.2 yerkes - dodson
2.1.1.2.1 low anxiety --> low accuracy middle anx --> high accuracy high anxiety --> low accuracy
2.1.1.2.1.1
2.1.2 age
2.1.2.1 koriat (2001)
2.1.2.1.1 examined the amount of information as well as the accuracy given by children
2.1.2.1.2 most researchers agree that children are worse than adults at providing an accurate account of past events and that the amount of information a child can recall develops with age. This is due to lack of retrieval capabilities as well as inferior capacity and duration.
2.1.2.1.3 researchers disagree on the accuracy of a child's memory. Studies such as Geisselman and Padilla found that after being shown a film of a bank robbery, children aged 7-12 were less accurate at reporting details of the incident. However, Cassa et al and other studies have failed to find such differences.
2.1.3 misleading questions
2.1.3.1 Loftus and Pickerell (1995)
2.1.3.1.1 aim
2.1.3.1.1.1 to demonstratehow false memories can be created through suggestions made to the Ps.
2.1.3.1.2 Procedure
2.1.3.1.2.1 4 short narratives of their childhood, allegedly provided by family members
2.1.3.1.2.2 one of the Ps. was given false narrative which was about when they got lost at a supermarket. The details were from actual family shopping trips
2.1.3.1.3 findings
2.1.3.1.3.1 25% able to recall event even though it never happened
2.1.3.1.3.1.1 repeated on people of all ages
2.1.3.1.4 conclusion
2.1.3.1.4.1 imaging events can lead to false memories
2.2 cognitive interview
2.2.1 recreate context
2.2.2 recall everything
2.2.3 change perspective
2.2.4 change order
2.2.5 Fisher et al. (1989)
2.2.5.1 detectives in Florida were trained to use the CI and were asked to use it in real life interviews. compared to the standard interview, there was an information gain of 47%
2.2.6 Geisselman and colleagues (1988)
2.2.6.1 89 students were shown police training videos of crime. Later they were interviewed by American police, some of whom used the CI.
2.2.6.2 level of information gained was measured by:
2.2.6.2.1 the number of correctly recalled details
2.2.6.2.2 number of incorect details or errors of things that weren't in the video
2.2.6.3 the students interviewed using CI recalled 41.5% of the details compared to 29.4%
3 strategies for improving memory
3.1 loci
3.1.1 involves identifying a set of familiar places and matching each location to the item you want tot remember. Once you have done this, you imagine walking through each loaction. The locations act as retrieval cues because you know them all well.
3.2 mnemonics
3.2.1 peg word method
3.2.1.1 based on same principle as loci except that the retrieval cues are a set of learned 'pegs'. after you have learned these, you convert each item you wish to remember into an image.
3.2.1.1.1 example: learning a set of objects that rhyme with numbers 1-20: 1 - gun, 2 - shoe...
3.2.1.1.2 example:shopping list: shooting a loaf of bread, walking on eggs...
3.3 organisational charts
3.3.1 create hierarchies to organise material into meaningful patterns
3.3.2 Bower et al. (1969)
3.3.2.1 Ps. had to learn a list of words. The experimental group saw words organised into a hierarchies and control group saw random words. In total Ps. saw 112 words and the experimental group could recall 65% on average compared to 19%.
3.3.3
3.4 rehearsal
3.4.1 Craik and Watkins (1973) identified 2 different forms of rehearsal
3.4.1.1 maintenance rehearsal
3.4.1.1.1 this is a technique mainly used by children, which involves repeating things over and over.
3.4.1.2 elaborative rehearsal
3.4.1.2.1 form of rehearsal requires you to make the information you repeat meaningful in some way. Elaborated memories are easier to recall, because their meanings will help you to recall them.
3.5 spacing
3.5.1 in a review of 63 studies, Donovan and Radosevich found that people who distributed their studies had a better learning and recall rate than those who crammed their studies into a short period of time.
3.6 pay attention
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