Rise of Japanese Militarism 1920s-1930s

sitasamtani
Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

Modern History Mind Map on Rise of Japanese Militarism 1920s-1930s, created by sitasamtani on 09/09/2013.

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sitasamtani
Created by sitasamtani about 6 years ago
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Rise of Japanese Militarism 1920s-1930s
1 Define militarism

Annotations:

  • Militarism is the belief of a government that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it to defend or promote national interests.
2 Post WW1 Japan

Annotations:

  • - Hara Takashi appointed as PM - Economic boom ended - overseas demand for Japanese goods collapsed- prices fell, unemployment rose (enhanced by Great Depression of 1929) - Common belief that government should be more democratic, reduce the role of genro, right to vote, push for trade unions - growth in support for communism- labour strikes and protests in 1923 - Rise in right-wing ultranationalistic - pro-empire, pro-expansion, pro-military
3 1920s
3.1 Washington Naval Conference - Nov 1921- Feb 1922

Annotations:

  • -Four power pacific treaty (Britain, Japan,USA, France to maintain the status quo in the Far East by mutually respecting each others rights in the Pacific) -Five Power Naval Treaty (fixed ratio of warships, Japan receiving less than Britain and USA) -Nine Power Pact (Respect China's neutrality and not take advantage of the weak government and all nations were to have equal trading rights)
3.2 1924- Stop Japanese migration to US
3.3 1927 - Shidehara Policy

Annotations:

  • - China and Japan to cooperate economically - Japan to respect China's independence and not interfere -Japan would be sympathetic to China
4 The Military

Annotations:

  • -Many officers and men resented the government for not expanding Japan -Disappointment that Government reduced military spending -Resented loss of power and prestige and opportunity for promotion -Feelings of betrayal -Sakurakai (Cherry blossom society)- aim to overthrow govt. and establish military cabinet - 50 members by 1931
5 Army gains greater control

Annotations:

  • -Japanese govt. forced to adopt a more aggressive foreign policy towards China -China in civil war, becoming weaker and more divided -Chiang Kai-Shek (Chinese communist leader) moving North towards Manchuria - Japanese govt. concerned Shek would win against the Manchurian Warlord (Chang) -Govt aims - DIFFUSE CONFLICT -However, army defies govt. and assassinates Manchurian Warlord
6 Japan's interests in Manchuria

Annotations:

  • -Japan already controlled Port Arthur since 1905 -Japan had rights to railway and minerals in south -Rich in coal, iron, timber, soya beans -More territory for growing Japanese population -Still in China's control
7 Manchurian Incident

Annotations:

  • 18th September 1931 - Japan train/railway was blown up near Mukden -Japanese officers claimed this was an attack by Chinese -Acted swiftly- forced Chinese troops out & also claimed territory further North -Japanese govt. were humiliated by army's illegal actions - no further expansion -By 1932 - whole of Manchuria was in Japanese control - US argued Japan had broken terms of Nine Power Pact (1922) - 'Manchukuo'- new name of puppet state - League of Nations didn't recognise control by Japanese there -Lytton report issued by lytton commission/league of nations stating this in 1932 (nov 25)
8 Emergence of Military Factions

Annotations:

  • Imperial Way - direct focus into Manchukuo, no further expansion Control faction - expansionist, wanted to invade China (stop communism and gain territory) Imperial Naval Forces - pro-expansion in Pacific 'Japanese lake'
9 1936 - Coup & New PM/National Policies

Annotations:

  • - Junior officers of Imperial Way staged a coup -Included 1400 army officers  - Occupied Imperial Palace and demanded a new cabinet headed by a suitable leader - Shot members of cabinet -Emperor Hirohito outraged, denounced the rebels -Declared martial law in Tokyo - Rebel officers - committed suicide or sentenced to death - End of Imperial Way - Control faction gained power with Hirota Koki becoming Prime Minister - 9th March 1936 (very pro-military) -Creates the document 'The Fundamental Principles of National Policy' in August 1936 - states national objectives, the consolidation of Japan's empire in East Asia and a Japanese advancement into the South Pacific.
10 25th Nov 1936- Anti-comintern pact

Annotations:

  • Japanese signed with Nazi Germany aimed to prevent the spread of international communism -Italy joined in 1937

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