Ch. 3 Bioprospecting

Daniela Pirisi
Mind Map by Daniela Pirisi, updated more than 1 year ago
Daniela Pirisi
Created by Daniela Pirisi over 5 years ago


First degree Ch 3 book 2 Bioprospecting Mind Map on Ch. 3 Bioprospecting, created by Daniela Pirisi on 02/15/2015.

Resource summary

Ch. 3 Bioprospecting
1 Plants - effort - transformation
1.1 Eg. Aspirin - Salicylic acid
2 Explore the way people are entangled with biophysical aspects of the planet in a neo-liberal system (p. 109)
2.1 From wikipedia: the process of discovery and commercialisation of new products based on biological resouces. Typically in less developed countries.
3 Cinchona travelled from Peru to Java
3.1 Plant imperialism: possible thanks to Wardian case to transport plants,
3.1.1 Kew Gardens became the territory where the plants were stored, botanical garden


  • Like Tuvalu an island and states or Financial Centres like Wall street or city of London are territories where the flows intertwine. Wardian case was the technology used to transport plants from exotic places to UK .
3.1.2 TERRITORIALISATION or making of territories are constructed, with boundaries and borders "Social and Spatial dynamics" of collection Parry: the ability for a group to access, acquire, monopolise materials and consequent creation of inequalities bw. those who have athose who havent's (p. 119) Plant imperialism and globalisation are put on the same level. Like bioprospecting (p. 143) In order to make bioprospecting profitable territorialisation is made through commodification
3.2 Contains quinine an anti-malarian substance
3.2.1 helped European empires expand in parts where malaria was strong like parts of Africa
4 Biodiversity: biological diversity: genetic, species and habitat diversity (p. 121)
4.1 In the 80s biologists and conservationists used the term, E.O. Wilson to draw attention to loss of species on the planet
4.2 Neo-liberalists argue that biodiversity should be privatised in order to preserve it. Free market environmentalism. Nature should be commercialised (p. 121)
4.2.1 1987: Brundtland Report, UN commission on sustainable development p.121) UN Convention on Biological Diversity


  •  It's the most important global architechture on how bioprospecting is organised. 1992 (p. 122) It is agreed that non humans species should be preserved by humans by policy makers, conservationists. biologists etc. Notion that plants can be profitable! Pharmaceutical world 1994 Prof. Lewis worked on funded project of Peruvian medical plant source based on knowledge by local people, conserving biodiversity and collaborating with indigenous people (p125) Brandt Commission - North - South divide, distribution of wealth and sharing of agriculture and proposing change between the rich North part of the world and the South, Brandt Report 1980 Global commodification of biological materials Transformation of plants into drugs by the pharma companies, need to provide benefits in return of the acquisition of the plants (p128) Creating medicinals from plants involves all sorts of flows (p129) Technical work required to tranform the territory (or plants) genetic code into pharmacological testing (p. 133 diagram) Transformation of biological material into information known as territorialisation (p 134) Transformation of biological material into property is another form of territorialisation or decontectualising activity ( p142) ICBG-Peru: Aguaruna people, case study, problems acknoledging royalty rights. Dutfield agreement settled that recognising a 0.5% of future sales to the Fund for the developemnet of Indigenous Peoples RAFI got involved Return to nature and benefit sharing regimes for poorer countries where the plants grow, global biodiversity (p129) One size fit it all, neo-liberal approach
5 CBD Convention on biological diversity Rio 1992
6 Biopiracy: when knowledge of other cultures is taken freely and patented into "intellectual property", making a profit. The people whose knowledge it was and the public then have to pay royalties for seeds and medicines produced by big corporations (p. 140)
7 Bioprospecting: Should be responsible to all humans involved, to non-humans and the planet. To indigenous peoples their customes, language not to be lost (p. 145) opposed to CBD one size fit it all.
7.1 Parry suggested that pharma companies allocate bw. 3-5 % of profit ratio to the South for those products developed on the indigenous peoples who had that knowledge in the first place.
8 The key transformations in bioprospecting show an interplay btw. territory and flow, making a globalised world ( p. 149)
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