GCSE AQA Biology 1 Drugs

Lilac Potato
Mind Map by Lilac Potato, updated more than 1 year ago
Lilac Potato
Created by Lilac Potato about 5 years ago
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A mind map showing information about drugs, testing, thalidomide...
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GCSE AQA Biology 1 Drugs
1 Drug: A substance which alters the way the body works
1.1 Chemical changes caused by drug can lead to addiction
1.1.1 If drug isn't taken - withdrawal symptoms
1.2 Examples of addictive drugs

Annotations:

  • * Heroin * Cocaine * Nicotine * Caffeine
2 Types of drugs
2.1 Medicinal
2.1.1 e.g. antibiotics
2.1.2 Prescription or non-prescription
2.1.3 Can be dangerous if misused
2.2 Performance-enhancing
2.2.1 Can improve performance in sport
2.2.2 Different types
2.2.2.1 Anabolic steroids

Annotations:

  • Increase muscle size
2.2.2.2 Stimulants

Annotations:

  • Increase heart rate
2.2.3 Can have negative health effects

Annotations:

  • Steroids can cause high blood pressure
2.2.4 Some banned by law, some prescription-only - ALL are banned by sporting bodies
2.2.5 Ethical problems
2.2.5.1 For taking drugs

Annotations:

  • * Athletes have right to make own decision about whether taking drugs is worth risk or not * Drug-free sport isn't really fair anyway - have access to different facilities, equipment, coaches...
2.2.5.2 Against taking drugs

Annotations:

  • * Unfair that people gain advantage * Athletes may not be fully aware of serious health risks
2.3 Recreational
2.3.1 Can be illegal or legal

Annotations:

  • Illegal drugs divided into: * Soft - can still be harmful * Hard - thought as more addictive and more harmful
2.3.2 Reasons for use

Annotations:

  • * Pleasure/enjoyment * Relaxation * Stress relief
3 Cannabis and hard drug use

Annotations:

  • Almost all users of hard drugs have tried cannabis first but most users of cannabis don't go on to use hard drugs
3.1 The link is because...
3.1.1 It's a stepping stone

Annotations:

  • Effects cause desire to try harder drugs
3.1.2 It's a gateway drug

Annotations:

  • Brings people into contact with drug dealers
3.1.3 It's because of genetics

Annotations:

  • Certain people are more likely to take take drugs generally - they will try other drugs too...
4 Legal drugs
4.1 Some have more of an impact than illegal drugs
4.1.1 Smoking

Annotations:

  • * Causes heart and lung disease * Tobacco smoke causes cancer * Nicotine is addictive
4.1.2 Alcohol

Annotations:

  • * Affects nervous system - slows down body's reactions * Too much can lead to impaired judgement, poor coordination and unconsciousness * Excessive drinking can cause liver disease and brain damage * It's addictive
4.1.2.1 Cost of crime and loss of money to economy
4.1.3 More people take them
4.1.4 NHS spend lots of money treating people
4.1.5 Cause grief to people affected
5 Drug claims
5.1 Statins

Annotations:

  • * Prescribed drugs used to lower risk of heart & circulatory diseases * Lower blood cholesterol and reduce risk of heart disease in diabetics * Large-scale research has been done to compare people who had and hadn't taken statins
5.2 Cannabis

Annotations:

  • * Illegal drug * Scientist have investigated whether it causes mental health problems - results vary
6 Testing medicinal drugs
6.1 1) Drugs are tested on human cells and tissues

Annotations:

  • * Can't use human cells and tissues for drugs that affect whole or multiple body systems
6.1.1 2) Drugs are tested on live animals

Annotations:

  • * To see whether drug works, to find out its toxicity and the best dosage * Law states any new drug must be tested on 2 different live mammals
6.1.1.1 3) Drugs are tested on human volunteers

Annotations:

  • * Drug is tested on healthy volunteers to find out side effects (v. low dose is given) * If results are good, drug is tested on people with the illness to find optimum dose (most effective/few side effects) * Double-blind trials are used - patients are put into 2 groups (one is given drug and one is given placebo) * When finding out effect of drug - allows for placebo effect * Doctors and patients don't know - doctors monitoring and analysing be influenced
7 Thalidomide
7.1 Was intended as a sleeping pill

Annotations:

  • Was tested for that use
7.1.1 Was found to be effective in relieving morning sickness
7.1.1.1 Wasn't tested for that use - didn't know affected fetus causing abnormal limb development

Annotations:

  • * Some babies born with no arms or legs * 10000 babies affected - only half survived
7.1.1.1.1 Drug was banned - more rigorous testing introduced
7.1.1.1.1.1 Recently thalidomide has been used for treating leprosy
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