Unit 1 Lifestyle, health and risk

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Biological Molecules, The Circulatory System and Lifestyle and Disease
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Unit 1 Lifestyle, health and risk
1 Biological Molecules
1.1 Water
1.1.1 Dipole Nature
1.1.1.1 Water is polar because the hydrogen electrons get pulled towards the oxygen giving the oxygen a slight negative charge and the hydrogen a slight positive charge
1.1.1.1.1 This also allows it to form hydrogen Bond
1.1.2 Cohesion
1.1.2.1 Water is a very cohesive due to hydrogen bonds it forms with other water molecules
1.1.3 Solvent
1.1.3.1 Water is a solvent which means substances can dissolve in it. This makes it good for transporting substances
1.1.3.1.1 Substances can dissolve in water because since water is dipolar the positive end of the water molecule will be attracted to the negative ion and the negative end of the water molecular will be attracted to the positive ion (See Right)
1.2 Carbohydrates
1.2.1 Monosaccharides
1.2.1.1 Glucose
1.2.1.1.1 Galactose
1.2.1.1.1.1 Fructose
1.3 Lipids
1.4 Proteins
1.4.1 Amino Acids
1.4.2 Structures
1.4.2.1 Primary
1.4.2.2 Secondary
1.4.2.3 Tertiary
1.4.2.4 Quaternary
2 Lifestyle and Disease
2.1 Prevention of CVD
2.1.1 Antihypertensives
2.1.1.1 Diuretics
2.1.1.1.1 more urine to be produced
2.1.1.1.2 reduces blood pressure
2.1.1.2 Abnormal heart rhythms, fainting and headaches
2.1.2 Plant Statins
2.1.2.1 reduces Cholesterol in the blood
2.1.2.2 reduce the absorbtion of some vitamins from the gut
2.1.2.3 reduces the amount of Cholesterol absorbed from the gut
2.1.3 Anticoagulants
2.1.3.1 reduces the formation of blood clots
2.1.3.2 Side effects: Excess bleeding, fainting
2.1.4 Platelet Inhibitory Drugs
2.1.4.1 reduce the formation of blood clots
2.1.4.2 Side Effects- rashes, diarrhoea, nausea liver function and excess bleeding
2.2 Risk Factors
2.2.1 Lifestyle
2.2.1.1 Smoking
2.2.1.1.1 CO combines with haemoglobin so reduces the amount of oxygen available to tissues
2.2.1.1.2 The Nicotine makes your platelet sticky increasing the risk of blood clot
2.2.1.1.3 Decreasing the amount of antioxidants
2.2.1.2 Diet
2.2.1.2.1 More fat means more Cholesterol
2.2.1.2.1.1 Higher chance of Atheroma
2.2.1.3 Inactivity
2.2.1.3.1 Increases blood presure
2.2.1.4 High Blood pressure
2.2.1.4.1 Higher the blood pressure the increased risk of damage to the arteries
2.2.2 Beyond Control
2.2.2.1 Age
2.2.2.2 Gender
2.2.2.3 Genetics
3 The Ciculatory System
3.1 The Heart
3.1.1 Valves
3.1.1.1 If there is high pressure in front of a valve its forced shut
3.1.1.2 If there is high pressure behind a valve it forced open
3.1.1.3 Atrioventricular
3.1.1.3.1 Atria to the Ventricles
3.1.1.4 Semi Lunar
3.1.1.4.1 Ventricles to P.Artery and Aorta
3.1.1.5 Stop blood flowing the wrong way
3.2 Blood Vessels
3.2.1 Veins
3.2.1.1 Contain Valves
3.2.1.2 Wide Lumen
3.2.1.3 Thinner Walls
3.2.1.4 Lower Pressure
3.2.1.5 Carry Blue Deoxygenated Blood
3.2.1.6 Carry little elastic muscle and collagen
3.2.2 Arteries
3.2.2.1 Thick Walls
3.2.2.2 No Valves
3.2.2.3 Small Lumen
3.2.2.4 More collagen and elastic fibres so it can strect under the high pressure
3.2.2.5 High Pressure
3.2.2.6 Folded Endothelium
3.2.2.7 Carry Oxygenated Blood
3.2.3 Capillaries
3.2.3.1 The Smallest of the blood vessels
3.2.3.2 Thin to allow quick diffusion
3.2.3.3 One cell thick
3.3 Mass Transport
3.3.1 carry raw material form speaclised exchange organs to.....
3.3.2 to body cells and to remove metabolic waste
3.4
4 The Cardiac Cycle
4.1
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