Cognitive Psychology - Memory

megan langdon
Mind Map by megan langdon, updated more than 1 year ago
megan langdon
Created by megan langdon about 5 years ago
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Description

Studies on memory for as level psychology.

Resource summary

Cognitive Psychology - Memory
1 Duration
1.1 STM
1.1.1 Peterson & Peterson
1.1.1.1 Method
1.1.1.1.1 Ppts shown nonsense trigram
1.1.1.1.1.1 3 random consonants
1.1.1.1.1.2 Asked to recall after 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 or 18 secs.
1.1.1.1.1.2.1 During pause - asked to count backwards in 3s from given no
1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 Interference task
1.1.1.2 Results
1.1.1.2.1 After 3 secs - about 80% trigrams recalled correctly
1.1.1.2.2 After 18 secs recall = 10%
1.1.1.3 Conc
1.1.1.3.1 When rehearsal prevented - very little can stay in STM for longer than about 18 secs
1.1.1.4 Evaluation
1.1.1.4.1 Lab experiment
1.1.1.4.1.1 Variables tightly controlled
1.1.1.4.1.1.1 Results likely to be reliable
1.1.1.4.2 Nonsense trigrams
1.1.1.4.2.1 Artificial
1.1.1.4.2.1.1 Lacks eco validity
1.1.1.4.2.1.2 Meaningful / 'real-life' memories may last longer in STM
1.1.1.4.3 Only 1 type of stimulus used
1.1.1.4.3.1 STM may depend upon stimulus
1.1.1.4.4 Each ppt saw multiple trigrams
1.1.1.4.4.1 Could've led to confusion
1.1.1.4.4.1.1 Meaning 1st trigram was only realistic task
1.2 VLTMs
1.2.1 Bahrick et al
1.2.1.1 Method
1.2.1.1.1 Field experiment
1.2.1.1.2 392 people asked to list names of ex-classmates
1.2.1.1.2.1 'Free-recall test'
1.2.1.1.2.2 Shown photos
1.2.1.1.2.2.1 Asked - recall names of people shown
1.2.1.1.2.2.1.1 Photo - recog test
1.2.1.1.2.2.2 Or given names
1.2.1.1.2.2.2.1 Asked to match to photo of classmate
1.2.1.1.2.2.2.1.1 Name - recog test
1.2.1.2 Results
1.2.1.2.1 W/in 15 yrs of leaving school
1.2.1.2.1.1 Ppts recall about 90% names & faces
1.2.1.2.2 About 60% accurate on free - recall
1.2.1.2.3 W/in 30 yrs - free recall = 30% accurate
1.2.1.2.4 After 48 yrs - name recog about 80% & photo recog about 40%
1.2.1.3 Conc
1.2.1.3.1 Shows evidence of VLTMs in 'real life setting'
1.2.1.3.2 Recog = better than recall
1.2.1.3.2.1 May be huge store of info
1.2.1.3.2.1.1 But not always easy to access all of it
1.2.1.3.2.1.1.1 Need help to get it
1.2.1.4 Evaluation
1.2.1.4.1 Field experiment
1.2.1.4.1.1 High eco validity
1.2.1.4.1.1.1 Hard to control all variables
1.2.1.4.1.1.1.1 Less reliable
1.2.1.4.2 No way of knowing why info recalled so well
1.2.1.4.3 Showed better recall than other studies in LTM
1.2.1.4.3.1 May be because info was meaningful
1.2.1.4.4 Type of info could be rehearsed
1.2.1.4.4.1 If still in touch w/ ex classmates / if talk to friends about memories of classmates
1.2.1.4.4.1.1 Results can't be gen to other types of info held in LTM
1.2.1.4.4.1.2 Increasing rates of recall
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