Cognitive Psychology - Memory

megan langdon
Mind Map by megan langdon, updated more than 1 year ago
megan langdon
Created by megan langdon about 5 years ago


Studies on memory for as level psychology.

Resource summary

Cognitive Psychology - Memory
1 Duration
1.1 STM
1.1.1 Peterson & Peterson Method Ppts shown nonsense trigram 3 random consonants Asked to recall after 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 or 18 secs. During pause - asked to count backwards in 3s from given no Interference task Results After 3 secs - about 80% trigrams recalled correctly After 18 secs recall = 10% Conc When rehearsal prevented - very little can stay in STM for longer than about 18 secs Evaluation Lab experiment Variables tightly controlled Results likely to be reliable Nonsense trigrams Artificial Lacks eco validity Meaningful / 'real-life' memories may last longer in STM Only 1 type of stimulus used STM may depend upon stimulus Each ppt saw multiple trigrams Could've led to confusion Meaning 1st trigram was only realistic task
1.2 VLTMs
1.2.1 Bahrick et al Method Field experiment 392 people asked to list names of ex-classmates 'Free-recall test' Shown photos Asked - recall names of people shown Photo - recog test Or given names Asked to match to photo of classmate Name - recog test Results W/in 15 yrs of leaving school Ppts recall about 90% names & faces About 60% accurate on free - recall W/in 30 yrs - free recall = 30% accurate After 48 yrs - name recog about 80% & photo recog about 40% Conc Shows evidence of VLTMs in 'real life setting' Recog = better than recall May be huge store of info But not always easy to access all of it Need help to get it Evaluation Field experiment High eco validity Hard to control all variables Less reliable No way of knowing why info recalled so well Showed better recall than other studies in LTM May be because info was meaningful Type of info could be rehearsed If still in touch w/ ex classmates / if talk to friends about memories of classmates Results can't be gen to other types of info held in LTM Increasing rates of recall
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