Victorian Literature: Key Areas

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AS level english literature key areas with quotes and stuff

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Victorian Literature: Key Areas
1 Industry and Empire
1.1 POETRY : White Mans Burden
1.1.1 one of the justifications of colonizing by europeans was that they had an obligation to "better the lives" of the people they conquered. so they were not actually doing it for (primarily) profit, but as an act of noblise oblige, a duty to act for those people.
1.1.1.1 Just getting to some of the colonies took months; it would be years or decades before many would or could return to England
1.1.1.1.1 Go bind your sons to exile
1.1.1.2 To serve your captive's need
1.1.1.3 Many of the territories were populated by nomadic people and those unwilling to acknowledge the British rule. Half devil because of the brutality natives were percieved to be capable of, and half child because to the British the natives seemed to have short attention spans and childlike niavete.
1.1.1.3.1 To wait in heavy harness On fluttered folk and wild - Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half devil and half child.
1.1.1.4 The empire's actions are not all noble; he admits to the economic/financial gain of the empire by collecting revenues from the defeated natives, by taxes or other means
1.1.1.4.1 To seek another's profit, And work another's gain.
1.1.1.5 the work of "the white man's burden was done by common men, not royalty
1.1.1.5.1 No tawdry rule of kings, But toil of serf and sweeper - The tale of common things.
1.1.1.5.1.1 the story of conquest is that of the average man, average soldier Kipling always looked on things from this view, rather than that of the ruling elite
1.1.1.6 having conquered, this refers to the process of educating and enlightening the "heathen natives", which refers both to matters religious, and more imporantly, to the scientific and technological advances of the age
1.1.1.6.1 The cry of hosts ye humour (Ah slowly !) towards the light:-
1.1.2 he merely reflects the common sentiments of the time
1.2 PROS : Heart of Darkness
1.2.1 Satirical of the Empire
1.2.1.1 The colonists are described as shiny, altruistic pioneers sallying forth into the dark uncivilized world to bring salvation and civilization to the ignorant races.
1.2.1.1.1 Hunters for gold or pursuers of fame, ... bearing the sword, ... messengers of the might within the land, bearers of a spark from the sacred fire. What greatness had not floated on the ebb of that river into the mystery of an unknown earth!…The dreams of men, the seed of commonwealths, the germs of empires.
1.2.1.2 Now Marlow undermines everything he just said about the nobility and good intentions of the explorers. He's seen how messed up colonization really is, and he knows that the colonizing countries care only about efficiency and profit. The explorers aren't heroes; they're robbers and murderers who just wanted to bring home profit.
1.2.1.2.1 They were no colonists; ... They were conquerors, and for that you want only brute force—nothing to boast of ... since your strength is just an accident arising from the weakness of others. They grabbed what they could get for the sake of what was to be got. It was just robbery with violence, aggravated murder on a great scale, and men going at it blind—as is very proper for those who tackle a darkness. The conquest of the earth, which mostly means the taking it away from those who have a different complexion or slightly flatter noses than ourselves, is not a pretty thing when you look into it too much.
1.2.1.3 Marlow makes fun of the colonist's motto—to civilize savages—by comparing it to an idle traveler imposing himself on hosts too generous to make him leave. The implication is that the colonists' arrival with all their rhetoric of civilization is ultimately undesired by the native African inhabitants.
1.2.1.3.1 I had then, as you remember, just returned to London after a lot of Indian Ocean, Pacific, China Seas - a regular dose of the East - six years or so, and I was loafing about, hindering you fellows in your work and invading your homes, just as though I had got a heavenly mission to civilize you.
1.3 PROS : Oliver Twist
1.3.1 Dickens’s works are overwhelmingly concerned with the social and psychological conditions that city life fostered
1.3.1.1 Who can describe the pleasure and delight, the peace of mind and soft tranquility, the sickly boy felt in the balmy air and among the green hills and rich woods of an inland village! ... Men who have lived in crowded, pent-up streets, through lives of toil, and who have never wished for change ... even they ... have been known to yearn at last for one short glimpse of Nature’s face, and [once they see it] have seemed to pass at once into a new state of being.
1.3.1.1.1 Dickens goes on to note that, in the country, even “the poor people” are “neat and clean.”
1.4 POETRY : In a London Drawing Room
1.4.1 Simile: comparing the houses to "solid fog"
1.4.2 Through the process of urbanization, individuals are lead to isolation due to the busy lives that urbanites carry; the common repetitious architecture in the setting of city also makes the surroundings uninviting and dull, leaving no space for the appreciation of nature.
1.4.2.1 Metaphor: houses are "cutting the sky with one long line of wall"
1.4.2.2 Metaphor: "thickest canvass" refers to clouds
1.4.2.3 Personification: hunger of the eye (curiosity is not fulfilled)
1.4.2.4 Personification: sun is dressed in hemp
1.4.2.5 Personification: "wheels are hurrying"
1.4.2.6 Simile: world compared to "prison-house & court"
1.4.3 Process of urbanization leads to isolation:
1.4.3.1 "All hurry on & look upon the ground, Or glance unmarking at the passengers by"
2 Position of Women
2.1 PLAY : A Woman of No Importance
2.2 Oliver Twist
2.2.1 Nancy- dies because of Sykes
2.3 The Ruined Maid
2.3.1 Her new role in society
3 Social Problems
3.1 Assisted by the Industrial Revolution
3.2 Upper class were rich and Lower class were poor.
3.3 There was a clear divide between classes.
3.4 A Dolls House
3.4.1 Nora had to take out a loan to protect their middle class status.
3.5 Oliver Twist
3.5.1 The Work Houses
3.5.2 Fagin and his boys
3.6 Tess
3.6.1 her struggle for survival
4 Evolving Attitudes
4.1 The theory of evolution
4.2 AWONI
4.2.1 Hester's culture from 'the new world'
4.3 Frankenstein
4.3.1 New science technologies
4.4 Tess
4.4.1 Sorrow's death
4.4.2 Angel questioning God
4.5 Religion was not as important
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