Cells and Organelles Questions

Jessica Phillips
Mind Map by Jessica Phillips, updated more than 1 year ago
Jessica Phillips
Created by Jessica Phillips almost 5 years ago
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A Levels Biology (Biology Unit 1) Mind Map on Cells and Organelles Questions, created by Jessica Phillips on 04/01/2015.

Resource summary

Cells and Organelles Questions
1 What are the two main types of organism?

Annotations:

  • Prokaryotes and Eukayotes.
1.1 What are main differences of these two types of organisms?
1.1.1 What are two examples of these two types of organisms?

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  • Prokaryotes - E coli bacterium, salmonella bacterium Eukayotes - Human liver cell, yeast
2 What are the organelles found in a typical animal cell?

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  • Plasma membrane, RER, nucleus, nucleolus, SER, lysosome, ribosome, nuclear envelope, Golgi apparatus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion
2.1 What organelles do plant cells have that animal cells don't?

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  • A cell wall with plasmodesmata, a vacuole and chloroplasts.
3 What is the plasma membrane and where is it found?

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  • The plasma membrane is the membrane found on the surface of animal cells and just inside the cell wall of plant cells and prokaryotic cells.
3.1 What is the function of plasma membrane?

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  • The plasma membrane regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell. It also has receptor molecules on it, which allow it to respond to chemicals like hormones.
3.2 What is the plasma membrane also called?

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  • Cell surface membrane
4 What is the cell wall?

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  • The cell wall is a rigid structure that surrounds plant cells. It's made mainly of the carbohydrate cellulose.
4.1 What is the function of the cell wall?

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  • The cell wall supports plant cells.
5 What are lysosomes?

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  • Lysosomes are round organelles surrounded by a membrane, with no clear internal structure.
5.1 What is the function of lysosomes?

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  • Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes which are kept separate from the cytoplasm by the surrounding membrane. The enzymes can be used to digest invading cells or break down worn out components of the cell.
6 What are ribosomes?

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  • Small organelles that either float free in the cytoplasm or are attached to RER.
6.1 What is the function of ribosomes?

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  • The site where proteins are made.
7 What is RER?

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  • A system of membranes enclosing a fluid-filled space. The surface is covered with ribosomes.
7.1 What is the function of RER?

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  • Folds and processes proteins that have been made at the ribosomes.
8 What is SER?

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  • Similar to RER but with no ribosomes.
8.1 What is the function of SER?

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  • Synthesises and processes lipids.
9 What is the nucleus?

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  • Large organelle surrounded by a nuclear envelope. Contains pores, chromatin and sometimes nucleolus. 
9.1 What is the function of the nucleus?
10 What are vesicles?

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  • Small fluid-filled sac in the cytoplasm, surrounded by a membrane.
10.1 What is the function of vesicles?

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  • Transports substances in and out of the cell and between organelles. 
11 What are Golgi apparatus?

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  • Group of fluid-filled flattened sacs. Vesicles are often seen at the edges of the sacs.
11.1 What is the function of Golgi apparatus?

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  • Processes and packages new lipids and proteins. Also makes lysosomes.
12 What are mitochondria?

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  • Usually oval-shaped. Has a double membrane. Usually found in large numbers.
12.1 What is the function of mitochondria?

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  • Site of aerobic respiration, where ATP is produced. 
13 What are chloroplasts?

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  • Small, flattened structure found in plant cells. Surrounded by double membrane, also has membranes inside.
13.1 What is the function of chloroplasts?

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  • Site of photosynthesis.
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