Aggression mind-map for A2 AQA Psychology

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Aggression mind-map for A2 AQA Psychology - Social learning theory - Biological explanations - Evolutionary explanations
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Aggression mind-map for A2 AQA Psychology
1 According to Bandura, aggressive behaviour is learned either through direct experience or vicarious experience
1.1 Learning by direct experience: if a child pushes another child and as a result gets something they want, the action is reinforced & is more likely to occur in similar situations in the future. these principles are similar to those of operant conditioning.
1.2 Learning by Vicarious experience: Observational learning.
1.2.1 When a child observes a role model behaving in a particular way and reproduces that behaviour. The child is then said to be imitating the behaviour of the model.
1.2.1.1 The aggressive behaviour is more likely to be imitated if the model if rewarded for their behaviour.
1.2.2 Bandura believed that vicarious learning is the most probable cause for aggression
2 social psychological explanations of Agression
3 BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATION OF AGGRESSION
3.1 Hormonal mecancisms in aggression
3.1.1 Testosterone
3.1.1.1 Androgens (male hormaones), such as Testosterone are considered important factors in aggressive behaviour.
3.1.1.1.1 This link is demonstrated in an increased violence of young adolescent males, which is when Testosterone levels peak.
3.1.1.1.1.1 Lindman et al (1987)
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Found that young males who behaved aggressively when drunk had higher levels of testosterone than those who did not act aggressively.
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Although, the research support provides positive correlations we cannot establish cause & effect because there are mediating factors which could influence aggression rather than testosterone.
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 For example, in Lindman's study the alcohol may have influenced the aggressive behaviour. Furthermore, high levels of testosterone could be a consequence of engaging in aggressive acts rather than testosterone causing the aggression.
3.1.1.1.2 Research support for Testosterone
3.1.1.1.2.1 Archer 1991 analysed the results of 230 males over 5 studies and found a low positive correlation between testosterone and aggression
3.1.1.1.2.2 A larger meta -analysis (Book at al) of 45 studies established a mean correlation of 0.14 between testosterone and aggression.
3.1.1.1.2.2.1 ... However, Archer et al claims, that methodological problems with this study meant that a correlation of 0.08 was more appropriate.
3.1.1.1.2.3 Inconsistent evidence for Testosterone
3.1.1.1.2.3.1 Despite supporting evidence, much of it has only shown weak positive correlations between testosterone and aggression, with some studies that find no relationship at all.
3.1.1.1.2.3.1.1 For example, Bain at al, found NO significant differences in testosterone levels between men who had been charged with murder or violent assault, & those charge with non-violent burglary.
3.1.1.1.2.3.1.1.1 Therefore the explanation should be applied with caution.
3.1.1.1.2.3.1.1.1.1 - biased sample#
3.1.1.1.2.3.1.1.1.2 Biased samples, Gender Bias, Reductonist
3.1.1.2 Testosterone has this effect due to its action on areas of the frontal lobe in the brain, which are responsible for aggression.
3.1.2 Cortisol
3.1.2.1 Second hormone involved in the increase of aggression. However, it may have a less of a direct effect than testosterone.
3.1.2.1.1 Cortisol is an important part of the body's response to stress and encourages social withdrawal
3.1.2.1.2 Cortisol is percieved to have a mediating effect on aggression
3.1.2.1.2.1 Without typical levels of Cortisol, testosterone levels are not stabilised
3.1.2.1.2.1.1 Low levels of Cortisol are therefore associated with higher levels of aggression; they are negatively correlated.
3.1.2.1.2.1.2 For example, there have been low levels of Cortisol found in habitually violent offenders. (Virkken, 1985)
3.1.2.2 Research support for the role of Cortisol
3.1.2.2.1 The moderating effect of Cortisol on aggressive behaviour is supported in a 4 year study of boys with behavioural problems. ( Mc Burnett et al, 2000).
3.1.2.2.1.1 Those boys with consistently low cortisol levels began antisocial acts at a younger age and exhibited 3x the number of aggressive symptoms, compared to boys with higher or flucuating cortisol levels.
3.1.2.2.1.1.1 Researchers concluded that Cortisol levels were strongly and inversely related to aggressive conduct disorder.
3.2 Neural mechanisms
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