Psychology Research Methods 1

Lucy Highton
Mind Map by Lucy Highton, updated more than 1 year ago
Lucy Highton
Created by Lucy Highton about 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Psychology Research Methods 1, created by Lucy Highton on 04/12/2015.
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Psychology Research Methods 1
1 Quantative
1.1 Easy to summerise (+)
1.2 Less meaningful (-)
1.3 NUMERICAL DATA
2 Qualatative
2.1 Easy to analyse (+)
2.2 Longer to analyse (-)
2.3 THOUGHTS AND FEELINGS
3 Sampling Methods
3.1 Target Population: A group that shares the characteristics that the researcher needs.
3.2 Representative Sample: a smaller version of the target population.
3.3 Random
3.3.1 Everyone stands an equal chance of being chosen.
3.3.2 E.g. Picking out of a hat.
3.3.3 (+) - quick, economical, no bias.
3.3.4 (-) - Freak Sample, time consuming when it comes to identifying everyone
3.4 Opportunity
3.4.1 Anyone who is available.
3.4.2 E.G. Asking people in a library.
3.4.3 (+) - Least time consuming.
3.4.4 (-) - Bias due to confidence of Ppt's, researcher bias.
3.5 Stratified
3.5.1 (+) - Avoids 'freak', Objective.
3.5.2 (-) - Time consuming
3.5.3 They identify subgroups before using random sampling
3.5.4 E.g. Sample of 20. 30% women and 70% men, 6 women and 14 men.
3.6 Systematic
3.6.1 Every nth member of target population,
3.6.2 E.g. Every 5th house of a street.
3.6.3 (+) - Avoids bias, no control, representative
3.6.4 (-) - Freak sample, researcher bias.
4 Research Questions
4.1 Single blind: Ppt's do not know what condition they are in.
4.2 Double blind: The Ppt's nor the experimenter know the conditions.
4.3 Aim - A statement describing what you intend to investigate.
4.4 One tailed - Directional - increase of decrease.
4.5 Two tailed - Non-directional - difference.
4.6 I.V. - what you change.
4.7 D.V. What you measure.
4.8 Null hypothesis - predicts no difference.
5 Types of experiment
5.1 Laboratory
5.1.1 Highly controlled, artificial setting. Researcher manipulates I.V. and ppt's are aware they are taking part in a Exp.
5.1.2 (+) - Replicable, reliable.
5.1.3 (-) - Artificial, unnatural behaviour.
5.2 Field
5.2.1 Natural environment, less control over variable. Researcher still deliberately manipulates the I.V. Ppt's aren't aware.
5.2.2 (+) - some control over Extraneous variables, Ecological.
5.2.3 (-) - No control over environmental factors, ethical issues.
5.3 Quasi
5.3.1 Researcher does not deliberately manipulate the variables. I.V. naturally occurs. Field or Lab.
5.3.2 (+) - No manipulation at all.
5.3.3 (-) -Researchers have to wait for things to naturally occur.
6 Experimental Designs
6.1 Independent Measures
6.1.1 Different ppt's in different conditions,
6.1.2 (+) - No order effects, Control of variables.
6.1.3 (-) - Individual difference,
6.2 Repeated Mesasures
6.2.1 The same ppt's doing each task
6.2.2 (+) - Differences due to change of I.V. , Fewer Ppt's
6.2.3 (-) - Order effects (Practice)
6.3 Matched Pairs Design
6.3.1 Different ppt's in different conditions, all ppt's related by psychological characteristics.
6.3.2 (+) - No order effects, individual differences are reduced,
6.3.3 (-) - Time consuming and expensive to match everyone together.
7 Controlling Variables
7.1 Confounding Variables.
7.1.1 Any variable (other than the I.V.) which HAS affected the D.V. but it wasn't identified before the study.
7.2 Extraneous Variables.
7.2.1 Any variable (Other than the I.V.) which MAY affect the D.V. if not controlled for but it has been identified before the study
7.2.2 Situational Variables
7.2.2.1 Certain aspects of the situation or environment which may affect ppt's behaviour
7.2.2.2 E.g Noise, Lighting, weather.
7.2.3 Demand Characteristics
7.2.3.1 Features of cues in an experiment which help ppt's figure out the aim of the study.
7.2.4 Experimenter Varibles
7.2.4.1 This occurs when the experimenter treats some ppt's different to others.
7.2.4.2 Written instructions is the best way to control this.
7.2.5 Participant Variables
7.2.5.1 These occur when individual characteristics of ppt's affect their behaviour
7.2.6 There are 3 techniques for controlling extraneous variables.
7.2.6.1 Standarisation
7.2.6.1.1 MAKE EVERYTHING THE SAME!
7.2.6.2 Counterbalancing
7.2.6.2.1 ABBA - One group does AB the other does BA. Balancing out order effects.
7.2.6.3 Randomisation
7.2.6.3.1 Controlling the variables by means of chance.
8 Strengths and Weaknesses
8.1 Strengths
8.1.1 - High levels of control over E.V's.
8.1.2 - Lab experiments are highly controlled.
8.1.3 - Easy to establish cause and effect. Therefore easy to predict and control behaviour
8.1.4 - Highly scientific
8.1.5 - Objective
8.2 Weaknesses
8.2.1 - Artificial environment
8.2.2 - Lack of Ecological Validity
8.2.3 - Experiments are narrowly assessed than what they would be in real life
8.2.4 - Ppt's are aware they are taking part in a experiment therefore show demand characteristics.
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