GCSE AQA Biology 3 The Breathing System

Lilac Potato
Mind Map by Lilac Potato, updated more than 1 year ago
Lilac Potato
Created by Lilac Potato about 6 years ago


A mind map showing information about the structure of the lungs, ventilation and artificial ventilators.

Resource summary

GCSE AQA Biology 3 The Breathing System
  1. The lungs
    1. Are in the thorax - top part of your body
      1. Separated from lower part of body (abdomen) by diaphragm
      2. Lungs are big, pink sponges - protected by ribcage
        1. Air breathed in goes into trachea which splits into 2 tubes called bronchi...
          1. ...which are split into smaller tubes called bronchioles which end at alveoli (where gas exchange happens)
        2. Ventilation is...
          1. ...breathing in
            1. 1) Intercostal muscles & diaphragm contract


              • Muscles between ribs pull ribcage & sternum up & out, diaphragm flattens out
              1. 2) Thorax volume increases
                1. 3) Pressure decreases, drawing air in
            2. ...breathing out
              1. 1) Intercostal muscles & diaphragm relax


                • Ribcage and sternum drop in & down
                1. 2) Thorax volume decreases
                  1. 3) Pressure increases, forcing air out
            3. Artificial ventilators
              1. Machines that move air into/out of lungs - help people who can't breathe by themselves
                1. In the past, they used to be giant case (iron lung) - air was pumped out of case so pressure dropped, lungs expanded & air was drawn in
                  1. Air pumped in had opposite effect, air was forced out of lungs
                    1. Could interfere with blood flow to lower body
                  2. Nowadays, ventilators work by pumping air into lungs - expands ribcage, when they stop pumping ribcage relaxes, pushing air out
                    1. Don't interfere with blood flow but can cause damage (e.g. burst alveoli)
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