GCSE Law Unit b142 WHOLE UNIT

Angela Dickinson
Mind Map by Angela Dickinson, updated more than 1 year ago
Angela Dickinson
Created by Angela Dickinson over 6 years ago
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the whole of unit 2 in one mind-map (almost) Hyperlink to second mindmap for freedoms and rights

Resource summary

GCSE Law Unit b142 WHOLE UNIT
  1. Civil courts
    1. the procedure
      1. based on Lord Woolf's "access to justice"

        Annotations:

        • Access to Justice redesigned the civil courts process, in an attempt to streamline a log-jammed system. It has had mixed results 
        1. key features

          Annotations:

          • Pre action protocols - Parties must try and resolve before taking to court         3 track system Strict time limits for all parties Cases managed and pushed forward by judges ADR is encouraged 
          1. evaluation of Lord Woolf's reforms
            1. positives

              Annotations:

              • promoting ADR should improve outcomes Case management of claims should speed up and allow the courts to run more smoothly pre-action protocols should mean fewer cases come to court 
              1. negatives

                Annotations:

                • Low take up of ADR in spite of encouragement Courts still jammed up with cases.    
            2. To start a case - Form N1

              Annotations:

              • court will allocate it to a 'track'
              1. the 3 tracks
                1. Small claims
                  1. 0-10k
                    1. county court
                      1. one day
                        1. judges chambers

                          Annotations:

                          • not a trial in a court room, but parties sitting in an office with a judge
                          1. district judge
                            1. no legal fees claimable

                              Annotations:

                              • so most people represent themselves
                            2. 0-1k if injury involved
                          2. fast-track
                            1. 10-25k
                              1. County Court
                                1. District Judge
                                  1. 30 weeks

                                    Annotations:

                                    • judge will case manage and set a timetable for evidence etc
                                    1. formal court hearing
                                      1. can use lawyers

                                        Annotations:

                                        • legal fees can be recovered from the losing party
                                  2. Multi-track
                                    1. complex and high value £25k +
                                      1. County OR High Court

                                        Annotations:

                                        • complex or v high value (over 50k) will be in the high court
                                        1. Circuit Judge or high court judge
                                          1. 72 weeks
                                            1. lawyers used
                                              1. formal court hearings
                                        2. Defendant

                                          Annotations:

                                          • Defendant gets a copy of the claim form - they can Defend (deny the claim) Admit (and settlement will be arranged) Counter-claim (they will ask the court to consider compensation for them) 
                                      2. civil law is..

                                        Annotations:

                                        • disputes between private individuals/companies
                                        1. claimant v defendant
                                          1. burden of proof the claimant to prove- balance of probabilties
                                            1. aim to compensate the claimant
                                          2. The courts are..
                                            1. County court
                                              1. High Court
                                                1. QBD

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  • high value negligence claims civil debt Admiralty court 
                                                  1. Chancery

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • wills (probate) mortgages intellectual property (patents and trademarks) tax 
                                                    1. Family

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • divorce adoption care proceedings 
                                                    2. Court of Appeal (Civil Division)
                                                      1. Supreme Court
                                                      2. Civil appeals
                                                        1. appeal to next senior judge

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • appeals against decision of a district judge go to circuit judge. Then High court, then Court of appeal then Supreme Court.   
                                                          1. leap frog appeal

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • on important points of law which need a fresh decision from the supreme court, appeals can 'skip' the Court of Appeal. 
                                                        2. evaluation of civil courts
                                                          1. adv

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • certainty - legally binding enforcable decision Time managed tracks keep cases under control. satisfaction of a court victory
                                                            1. disadv

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • costly/expensive time consuming Publicity delays
                                                          2. alternative dispute resolution (ADR)
                                                            1. alternative to court

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • courts are expensive, time consuming and destroy relationships.
                                                              1. Negotiation
                                                                1. the parties sort it out

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  • no 3rd party involvement claimant and defendant resolve the problem, come to compromise settle out of court 
                                                                2. mediation
                                                                  1. 3rd party helps discussion

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    • another person helps each side get their views across.  keeps things moving forwards prevents personal antagonism from getting in the way of a solution 
                                                                  2. arbitration
                                                                    1. third party makes a legally binding decision
                                                                      1. C and D agree to abide by decision
                                                                        1. can be a hearing or on paper
                                                                          1. parties can agree up front

                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                            • even before any dispute has arisen, parties can agree in their contracts that they will avoid court and use arbitration
                                                                            1. Scott v Avery Clause
                                                                            2. example
                                                                              1. ABTA

                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                • the Association of British Travel Agents will settle disputes between travellers and tour companies
                                                                          2. conciliation
                                                                            1. trained third party helps solve

                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                              • other person helps advise on possible solutions they will have some training in the area in dispute 
                                                                              1. eg. ACAS
                                                                            2. for some limited areas of law
                                                                              1. tribunals
                                                                                1. more like formal court

                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                  • but attempts to be less intimidating
                                                                                  1. panel of three make decision
                                                                                    1. legally binding
                                                                                      1. one legally trained

                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                        • others will have some expertise in the area being considered.  EG if employment tribunal one may be from industry and one from a union 
                                                                                      2. limited legal funding
                                                                                        1. tribunals have own appeals system
                                                                                          1. advantages

                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                            • less intimidating than court   expertise on the panel  lower legal costs   fewer delays than court  
                                                                                            1. disadvantages

                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                              • still long delays can be stressful Limited legal assistance available ( not all fees reclaimable) public hearings   
                                                                                          2. eg

                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                            • housing immigration employment 
                                                                                          3. evaluation of ADR
                                                                                            1. adv

                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                              • cheaper than court faster than court more positive outcomes - helps preserve business or family relationships
                                                                                              1. disadv

                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                • hard to arrange Limited uptake- people prefer to deal within the courts not always legally binding so may end up in court at a later date anyway
                                                                                          4. legal funding
                                                                                            1. self funding

                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                              • rich people may fund their own legal expenses, Even for straightforward cases this may be many thousands of pounds
                                                                                              1. legal aid

                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                • tax-payer funded money 
                                                                                                1. Community Legal Service funding
                                                                                                  1. means test

                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                    • you will only get legal aid if you have no money to pay for it yourself.  This includes income and 'capital' - money in the bank 
                                                                                                    1. merits test

                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                      • you will only get legal aid if you are likely to win
                                                                                                      1. evaluation

                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                        • good because it means that poor people can access justice Aims to conserve public funds ______________ negative because the merits test means that some cases cannot be tested in court also bad because very limited types of claims now can get legal aid. 
                                                                                                        1. restricted to very few types of case

                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                          • most family lawexcluded from legal aid
                                                                                                      2. pro-bono
                                                                                                        1. lawyer gives their time for free

                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                          • often this relates to charitable work
                                                                                                        2. Conditional fee arrangement
                                                                                                          1. "no-win-no-fee"
                                                                                                            1. claimant takes out insurance against losing so lawyer gets paid

                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                              • After the Event Insurance.
                                                                                                              1. if claimant wins the lawyers get their fees from the losing side
                                                                                                                1. most often used in negligence Claims

                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                  • road accidents and injuries
                                                                                                                  1. evaluation

                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                    • plus - gives people with no money access to compensation No expense to tax-payer Negatives - extra insurance will push up overall costs of the process Lawyers only accept 'easy' cases
                                                                                                                2. insurance

                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                  • motor and household policies often have an element of legal cover   
                                                                                                                3. legal professions
                                                                                                                  1. barristers
                                                                                                                    1. role

                                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                                      • 'advocate' in court self employed Work in groups called 'chambers'  they represent people in court, act as their voice.  role is to present the best legal argument possible for their client
                                                                                                                      1. training and qualification

                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                        • law degree (or other degree plus one year GDL conversion) BVC - bar vocational course - one year Pupillage - on the job training - one year
                                                                                                                        1. have to join an Inn

                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                          • trainee barristers have to join an Inn of Court and attend training and get 'dining credits' for attending dinners
                                                                                                                        2. smallest prof
                                                                                                                          1. The Bar Council

                                                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                                                            • governing body
                                                                                                                          2. solicitors
                                                                                                                            1. role

                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                              • give general advice to clients on wide areas of law Work in law firms - employed may take extra qualifications to speak in higher courts "right of audience"
                                                                                                                              1. training and qualification

                                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                                • law degree (or other plus GDL conversion) One year Law Practice Course (LPC) THEN 2 years 'articles' - on the job training before becoming a fully qualified solicitor
                                                                                                                                1. largest prof
                                                                                                                                  1. The Law Society

                                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                                    • governing body
                                                                                                                                  2. legal executives
                                                                                                                                    1. role

                                                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                                                      • similar to solicitors but tend to have a narrow area of specialism
                                                                                                                                      1. training and qualification

                                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                                        • vocational qualification while working in a law firm no degree needed
                                                                                                                                        1. ILEX

                                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                                          • Institute of Legal Executives Governing body 
                                                                                                                                        2. fusing the professions?

                                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                                          • do we need separate roles for barristers and solicitors?  One lawyer would be more straightforward for clients. BUT might reduce specialism that exists 
                                                                                                                                          1. criticism of the professions

                                                                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                                                                            • Elitism - most barristers went to fee-paying schools lack of diversity - at senior levels, women and ethnic minorities are not well represented. These mean that the legal professions are not representative of society. Senior lawyers go on to be judges and so the inequalities lead through to the judiciary  
                                                                                                                                          2. Judges
                                                                                                                                            1. hierarchy

                                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                                              • District Judge Recorder  Circuit Judge High court judge Appeal Court Judge Supreme Court Justice
                                                                                                                                              1. qualification

                                                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                • must have served as a lawyer with rights of audience for 7 years (usually barristers)  
                                                                                                                                                1. appointment

                                                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                  • appointed by the lord Chancellor and the Queen Judicial appointments committee runs interviews and seletion process
                                                                                                                                                  1. criticism

                                                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                    • pale male and stale White old men   few women in senior courts Low representation of ethnic minorities Most judges over 50 and senior judges in their 60s Majority went to expensive private schools
                                                                                                                                                    1. pale male and stale
                                                                                                                                                    2. Training

                                                                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                      • quite limited in training will be trained in key changes of the law May receive training on diversity issues.  Otherwise they learn by shadowing experienced judges 
                                                                                                                                                    3. Basic freedoms and Human Rights
                                                                                                                                                      1. see separate mindmap - link here

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