Institutional Aggression

jessclarke
Mind Map by jessclarke, updated more than 1 year ago
jessclarke
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Institutional Aggression Mind Map

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Institutional Aggression
1 The Importation Model
1.1 Interpersonal Factors
1.1.1 Irwin + Cressey (1962)
1.1.1.1 Prisoners Bring their ow social histories with them
1.1.1.2 They argue prisoners are not 'blank slates' when they enter prison
1.1.1.3 Many of the normative systems developed on the outside would be imported into the prison
1.2 Evaluation
1.2.1 Hans + Steffensmeier (2006)
1.2.1.1 Collected data from 58 US prisons
1.2.1.2 Found black inmates had significantly higher rates of violence but lower rates of alcohol and drug related misconduct than white inmates
1.2.1.3 These parallel racial differences in these behaviours in US society and so support the importation model
2 Gang Membership
2.1 Allender + Marcell (2003)
2.1.1 In prison enviroments, gang membership is consistantly realted to violence and other forms of anti-social behaviour
2.1.2 Found that gang membership appears to be an important determinant in prison misconduct
2.1.3 Members of street gangs offend at higher levels than their non-gang counterparts and account for a disproportionate amount of serious and violent crime
2.1.4 Huff (1998)
2.1.4.1 Gang members in the US are 10x more likely to murder or assault in public than non-gang members of a similar age and background
2.2 Evaluation
2.2.1 DeLisi (2004)
2.2.1.1 Challenges the claim the pre-prison gang membership predicts violence in prison
2.2.1.2 They found inmates with prior street gang involvement were no more likely to engage in violence
2.2.1.3 This lack of correlation between two may be explained by the fact violent gang members tend to be isolated from the general inmate population therefore have less opportunities for violence.
2.2.2 Fischer (2001)
2.2.2.1 Isolating known gang members reduced rates of serious assault by 50%
3 Situational Factors - The Deprivation Model
3.1 Paterline + Peterson (1999)
3.1.1 This model argues that prisoner or paitient aggression is the product of the stressful and oppressive conditions of the institution
3.1.2 Include crowding, assumed to increase fear and frustrated levels of the staff experience
3.2 Hodgkinson et al (1985)
3.2.1 Found trainee nurses are more likely to suffer from violent assault than experienced nurses
3.2.2 Davies + Burgess (1988)
3.2.2.1 In the prison setting, length of service was also a significant factor, with more experienced officers being less likely to suffer assault
3.3 Evaluation
3.3.1 McCorkle et al (1995)
3.3.1.1 Support the claim that peer violence is used to relieve the deprivation imposed by institutional cultures such as prisons.
3.3.1.2 Found that overcrowding, lack of privacy and lack of meaningful activity all significantly influence peer violence
3.3.2 Nijman et al (1999)
3.3.2.1 Research is not consistent in its findings
3.3.2.2 Found increased personal space failed to decrease the level of violent incidents among patients/prisoners
4 The Pains of Imprisoment
4.1 Sykes (1958)
4.1.1 Described deprivations that inmates experience within prison and which might be linked to an increase in violence
4.1.2 These included the loss of liberty, the loss of autonomy and loss of securit, they found the potential threat to personal security increase anxiety levels in inmates even if the majority of prisoners posed no threat..
4.1.3 They may cope in different ways to the pains
4.1.4 Some may withdraw through seclusion in their cell or living space and others may rebel in the form of violence against prisoners and/or staff
5 Combining the Deprivation and Importation Models
5.1 Jiang + Fischer-Giorlando (2002)
5.1.1 Found support for both the deprivation and importation
5.1.2 They found the deprivation model was better to explain violence against prison staff where as the importation model was better to explain violence agains other inmates
5.2 Poole + Regoli (1983)
5.2.1 Found the best indicator among juvenile offenders was pre-institutional violence regardless of any situational factors in the institution
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