Research Methods

rheannahinds1
Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

A Level Psychology (Research Methods) Mind Map on Research Methods, created by rheannahinds1 on 10/16/2013.

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rheannahinds1
Created by rheannahinds1 about 6 years ago
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1 Variables
1.1 object, quality or event that changes or varies some way e.g. aggression, intelligence, height, attraction
1.2 have to operationalise variables, physically measurable or testable
1.3 Investigating Varibales
1.3.1 observations, case studies, surveys - precisely measured in varying amounts of detail
1.3.2 correlations - measured and compared to see how they co-vary with each other
1.3.3 experiment - IV is altered to see effect on DV (IV is manipulated, DV is measured outcome
1.4 EV - extraneous variables influence DV - could spoil experiment can be random (reduce accuracy) or constant (truly confound experimental methods
2 Experimental Designs
2.1 Repeated Measures - same participants in each condition
2.1.1 Strengths - participant variables are constant between conditions, better statistical tests are used because of less varieties between conditions, fewer participants are needed
2.1.2 Weaknesses - order effects, learning fatigue and bordem, demand characteristics people guess the aim of the study, different tests might be needed
2.2 Matched Pairs - different but similar participants in each condition
2.2.1 Strengths - variables are more constant, better statistical tests there are less variations between conditions, no order effects, no demand characteristic, same test is used
2.2.2 Weaknesses - it is time consuming, more participants are required, variables can never be matched perfectly
2.3 Independent Measures - different participants in each condition
2.3.1 Strengths - order effects do not influence second condition, demand characteristics are less of a problem, same test is used
2.3.2 Weaknesses - participant variables differ, worse statistical tests means there are more variation between conditions, more participants are required
3 Reliability and Validity
3.1 Reliability - how consistent or dependant a test is, reliable test carried out in same circumstances should always produce same results
3.1.1 Internal - should give consistent results, can be assessed using split half method, results from each half should produce a high positive correlation. e.g. IQ test = equal difficulty should achieve similar scores on all sections
3.1.2 External - should produce consistent results regardless of when its used, can be assessed using test retest method, should produce high positive correlation between 2 scores. e.g. took same IQ test on 2 different days should get same results
3.2 Validity - how well a test measures to what it claims to e.g. IQ test with only maths q's is not a valid test of general intelligence
3.2.1 Internal - extent to which results are caused by variables being measured rather than extraneous variables
3.2.2 External - extent to which results of test can be generalised e.g. to a larger population
3.2.3 Ecological - extent to which results can reflect real life
3.2.4 Assessed? - comparing results with results an existing measure, make a judgement on whether it measures what it claims
3.3 Improved?
3.3.1 Standardising Research
3.3.1.1 Specific procedures are created, followed every time is carried out, ensures test is carried out, ensure researchers are testing participants in the same way
3.3.1.2 e.g. same sequence, same time of day, same environment with participants receiving same instructions, reduces the possibility of EV affecting research help improve IV and ER
3.3.2 Pilot studies
3.3.2.1 Small scale trial runs of test, used to check for any problems before test is carried out for real, gives researchers practice at following procedures, allow validity and reliability of test to be assessed in advance, opportunity for improvements to be made
3.3.3 Operationalising variables
3.3.3.1 clearly defining all research variables. clarifying improves reliability and validity
3.3.3.2 e.g. watching aggressive TV influences aggressive behavior, aggressive TV and aggressive behavior need to be defined
4 Experimental Methods
4.1 Lab - research deliberately manipulates the independent variable while maintaining strict control over extraneous variables through standardised procedures in a controlled environment
4.1.1 Strengths - high external validity as extraneous variables are controlled, greater ability to replicate, can establish cause and effect
4.1.2 Weaknesses - reduces ecological validity and mundane realism, possibility of demand characteristics and experimenter bias
4.2 Field - deliberately manipulates the independent variable does so in participants natural environment
4.2.1 Strengths - experimenter effects minimal, greater ecological validity and mundane realism
4.2.2 Weaknesses - difficult to replicate, ethical issues, difficult to control all variables
4.3 Natural - independent variable is changed by natural occurrence, records effect on dependent variable
4.3.1 Strengths - no experimenter effects, increased external/ecological validity and mundane realism
4.3.2 Weaknesses - hard to replicate, hard to establish cause and effect, little control over extraneous variables ethical issues
5 Non Experimental Methods
5.1 Observations
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3 Enter text here

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