Chapter 1/Lectures 1, 2 & 3

Madolyn Goodall
Mind Map by Madolyn Goodall, updated more than 1 year ago
Madolyn Goodall
Created by Madolyn Goodall about 6 years ago
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Overview of the world going into the 20th century

Resource summary

Chapter 1/Lectures 1, 2 & 3
  1. Overview of the World in the 1800s and Early 1900s
    1. Shift from agricultural productivity to industrial*
      1. Rise in size and power of middle class*
        1. Resented by lower class
          1. Seen as threatening to upper class
            1. Gradually replaced aristocracy*
            2. Vastly different living styles in urban and rural areas*
              1. Rapid industrialization created a lot of city slums*
                1. Wealth not evenly divided*
              2. Lead by GB*
              3. Territorial empires*
                1. Conquest of land surrounding core region
                  1. Difficult to defend
                    1. contained multiple conflicting religions and ethinicities
                      1. Ottoman*
                        1. Often in conflict with Russia
                          1. Allied with GB and FR to prevent Russian expansion to Black Sea
                          2. Weak by end of 1800s*
                            1. External war against Russia
                              1. internal political conflict over Westernization
                                1. Not industrializing as quickly*
                                2. increasing ethnic nationalism
                                3. Lead by Sultan Abdulhamit I*
                                  1. Lacked ability to collect taxes*
                                    1. Created public debt administration*
                                      1. Foreigners in charge of collecting taxes*
                                        1. Made it difficult to catch up to Europe*
                                4. Russia*
                                  1. Second most territory after GB
                                    1. Westernization opposed by nobility and Orthodox christians
                                      1. Not industrialized*
                                      2. Multi-ethnic population*
                                        1. Ruled by Tsar Nicholas II*
                                          1. Okhrana*
                                            1. secret police*
                                            2. Completely autocratic*
                                              1. Violent opposition toward him*
                                                1. Russian Revolution in 1905*
                                                  1. Duma created but had no real power*
                                          2. China
                                            1. Threatened by trade with Europe
                                              1. led to Opium Wars
                                                1. defeated by GB
                                                  1. GB took control of economy and trade, made it to benefit west
                                              2. Qing dynasty in control
                                                1. Taiping revolutions against Qing
                                                  1. Weakened empire
                                                    1. Gave Japan and Russia opportunity to attack and take some land
                                              3. Germany*
                                                1. Relatively new as nation-state (1871)*
                                                  1. Rapidly industrialized after formation*
                                                    1. Very rich as result*
                                                    2. Lead by Kaiser Wilhelm II (1888-1918)*
                                                      1. Head of gov appointed by Kaiser was Chancellor*
                                                        1. Parliament made of Reichstag and Bundesrat*
                                                          1. Relatively powerless*
                                                            1. Controlled state finances*
                                                              1. Not fully a representative democracy*
                                                          2. Austria-Hungary*
                                                            1. Collection of territories put together by Habsburgs*
                                                              1. Many different ethnic regions*
                                                                1. Not a true sense of unity*
                                                                  1. Wanted own ethnic nation-states*
                                                                  2. Slow in industrializing compared to GB, France, Germany*
                                                                2. Sea-Linked Empires*
                                                                  1. Economies based on mercantilism
                                                                    1. country should export more than it imports to gain wealth
                                                                    2. Great Britain*
                                                                      1. Largest empire*
                                                                        1. 20% of world land mass, 23% of human race
                                                                          1. Mostly tropical dependencies
                                                                            1. Small groups of Europeans controlling native populations
                                                                              1. Used for labour
                                                                                1. Considered expendable
                                                                                2. Settlement colonies
                                                                                  1. White Dominions
                                                                                    1. Canada and Australia
                                                                                      1. Indigenous mostly killed off
                                                                                      2. Mixed-settler colonies
                                                                                        1. South Africa, New Zealand, Hawaii, Caribbean
                                                                                          1. Europeans co-existed with natives
                                                                                            1. Sense of white Christian cultural superiority
                                                                                              1. Created a lot of conflict
                                                                                      3. Largely urban population*
                                                                                        1. Not common yet at the time*
                                                                                        2. Constitutional monarchy*
                                                                                          1. Monarchy seen as figure-heads, guarantee of stability and tradition*
                                                                                            1. Prime Minister and Parliament had power*
                                                                                              1. Vote not yet universal*
                                                                                          2. France*
                                                                                            1. Second most powerful country and empire*
                                                                                              1. Not as industrialized as GB*
                                                                                                1. Governed by Third Republic*
                                                                                                  1. No monarch, no nobility*
                                                                                                    1. Lead by Prime Minister*
                                                                                                2. Economic capitalism present in empires
                                                                                                  1. Laissez-faire
                                                                                                    1. belief that government should not be part of economic affairs beyond protection of peace and property rights
                                                                                                    2. free competition
                                                                                                    3. New Imperiallism
                                                                                                      1. Japan*
                                                                                                        1. Focused on aggressive industrialization after Meiji Restoration*
                                                                                                          1. Japanese gov imitating modernization in Europe*
                                                                                                          2. Wealth invested in military*
                                                                                                            1. Imitated German mililtary*
                                                                                                            2. Intent to build empire in Pacific*
                                                                                                              1. Lacks own natural resources*
                                                                                                                1. Wanted status as world power*
                                                                                                              2. United States of America*
                                                                                                                1. Militarily isolationist*
                                                                                                                  1. Only really paid attention to politics in Americas*
                                                                                                                    1. Monroe Doctrine*
                                                                                                                      1. Americans threatening Europeans if they tried to take any part of Americas*
                                                                                                                      2. Roosevelt Corollary*
                                                                                                                        1. Americans gave themselves the right to intervene in Central and South American politics*
                                                                                                                          1. Causes resentment toward USA from them*
                                                                                                                    2. Started geostrategic positioning against Japan in Pacific
                                                                                                                      1. Gained Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam, Cuba in Spanish-American War of 1898*
                                                                                                                      2. Very powerful*
                                                                                                                        1. Rapid territorial expansion after independence*
                                                                                                                          1. Defeated natives
                                                                                                                            1. Signed diplomatic treaties with GB and FR
                                                                                                                              1. Lots of natural resources*
                                                                                                                              2. Large population from immigration*
                                                                                                                                1. Heavily industrialized and urbanized*
                                                                                                                                2. Democratic republic*
                                                                                                                                3. Used gunboat diplomacy
                                                                                                                                  1. pursuing foreign policy objectives by demonstrating and/or threatening to use overwhelming force
                                                                                                                                4. Social Darwinism
                                                                                                                                  1. Nations that can't adapt to industrialization shouldn't be prevented from dying out
                                                                                                                                    1. Based on Darwin's theory of natural selection
                                                                                                                                    2. Growing opposition to conservatism
                                                                                                                                      1. Feminism
                                                                                                                                        1. Focus on gaining suffrage
                                                                                                                                          1. Advocated for abolitionism in US
                                                                                                                                            1. Russia first to give national political equality to women in 1906
                                                                                                                                              1. Most western industrialized countries gave vote to women by 1925
                                                                                                                                              2. Liberalism
                                                                                                                                                1. Demanded end of absolute monarchies
                                                                                                                                                  1. Direct product of the Enlightenment
                                                                                                                                                    1. Primarily middle class movement
                                                                                                                                                      1. Called for representative gov dominated by propertied classes
                                                                                                                                                      2. Wanted legal equality, religious tolerance, freedom of press
                                                                                                                                                      3. Marxism
                                                                                                                                                        1. Karl Marx's "Communist Manifesto"
                                                                                                                                                          1. No one owns property, no class distinctions
                                                                                                                                                            1. Everything produced is public goods to be divided evenly to all who participated in the production system
                                                                                                                                                          2. Nationalism
                                                                                                                                                            1. Product of imperialism
                                                                                                                                                              1. States and nations no longer matched up
                                                                                                                                                              2. Believed people joined by a common culture should be joined politically by a gov that meets their specific needs
                                                                                                                                                                1. Goal to en imperialism
                                                                                                                                                              3. Paris Exposition Universelle*
                                                                                                                                                                1. 58 countries participated
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Colonies not allowed own pavilions
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Recreations of indigenous temples and villages by French architects
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Portrayals of indigenous people very racist, barbaric, primitive*
                                                                                                                                                                    2. USA had most exhibits and won most awards
                                                                                                                                                                    3. Exhibited technological advacements
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Talking films
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Moving sidewalks
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Steel architecture
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Diesel engine
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Electrical lights
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Palace of Electricity*
                                                                                                                                                                                2. Showed world white superiority*
                                                                                                                                                                                3. Distorted version of reality*
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. European version of world*
                                                                                                                                                                                4. Globalization underway*
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Caused by trade, industrialization, colonization*
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Speed of transport and communication increasing*
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Railroads, steam ships*
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Telegraph*
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Easier access to information*
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Photography*
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Rotary printing press*
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Creation of popular press, widespread newspapers, etc. *
                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Fairly accurate maps of world*
                                                                                                                                                                                              3. Attempt to standardize the measure of time*
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Creation of time zones*
                                                                                                                                                                                              4. Colonized or occupied areas
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Africa*
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Almost completely controlled by Europeans*
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Entire continent colonized*
                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. India*
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Most important of British colonies*
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Large population*
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Centre of world civilization*
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Rich in natural resources*
                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Captive market for GB products*
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Weakened Indian economy*
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Not able to industrialize, modernize*
                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. China*
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Not doing well*
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Chinese Boxer Rebellion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Qing dynasty weakened*
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Internal disunity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Heavy western intervention*
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Western imposed Open Door Policy in China
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Agreement among world powers to respect the territorial integrity of China
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Intended primarily to limit Japanese expansion in China
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. GB, Japan, Russia, Germany, France, Italy consented
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Caused disagreements about spheres of interest of each power in China
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. Empress began chanelling aid to oppose westerners
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Openly supported "The Righteous and Harmonious Fists" aka the Boxers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Caused Opium Wars*
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Hong Kong given to GB*
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4. Boxers attacked foreign embassies in Peking
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Murdered diplomats, christian missionaries, chinese christian converts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Empress declared war on West
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. West sent Eight-Nation Alliance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Quickly captured Beijing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Forced Qing dynasty to accept the Boxer Protocol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Allowed western military forces to occupy China
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Ended Qing empire
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