Cognitive Structural Theories

Julian N Branch
Mind Map by Julian N Branch, updated more than 1 year ago
Julian N Branch
Created by Julian N Branch over 6 years ago
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Cognitive Structural Theories
  1. Women's Ways of Knowing Theory
    1. Baxter Magolda's Model of Epistemological
      1. 1992
        1. Epistemological difference between gender
          1. 1, Receiving knowledge: Minimal interaction with instructors, an emphasis on comfort in the learning environment, relationships with peers, and ample opportunities ti demonstrate knowledge
            1. 2. Transitional Knowing: Involves an acceptance that some knowledge is uncertain
              1. Interpersonal Knowing: is characterized by interaction with peers to gather and share idea, values of rapport with instructor to facilitate self-expression, a preference for evaluation geared to individual differences and resolving uncertainty by employing personal judgment
              2. 3. Independent Knowing: Is viewed as mostly uncertain. The preferred role of the instructor shifts to providing the context for knowledge exploration
                1. 4. Contextual Knowing: Reflects a convergence of previous gender related patterns
                2. Baxter was interested in how similarities and difference emerged from Belenky work with genders and thought more needed to be looked at
                  1. The need to address gender in a study with cognitive development that would become a longitudinal study
                  2. 1986
                    1. Different ways of knowing as "perspectives" rather than stages
                      1. Silence: is characterized as mindless, voiceless and obedient. Women find themselves to the whims of external authority
                        1. Received Knowing: A lack of self-confidence is evident in the belief that one is capable of recieving and reproducing knowledge imparted by external authorities but not of creating one's own knowledge
                          1. Subjective Knowing: The pendulum swings, and truth is now seen as residing in the self
                            1. Procedural Knowing: involves learning and applying objective procedures for taking in and conveying knowledge
                              1. Constructed Knowing: invloves the integration of subjective and objective knowledge, with both feeling and thought of present
                              2. The researcher became interested in why women speak so frequently of problems and gaps in their learning and so often doubt they intellectual competence
                                1. Looked at 135 women to see what their problems were
                                2. King and Kitchener's Reflective Judgment Model
                                  1. 1994
                                    1. Reflective judgments are made to bring closure to situations that can be characterized as uncertain.Each of the seven stages represents a distinct set of assumptions about knowledge and the process of acquiring knowledge
                                      1. Prereflective thinkers: Do not acknowledge or possible even realize that knowledge is uncertain.
                                        1. Quasi-reflective thinkers: Realize that ill-structured problems exist and that knowledge claims about these problems include uncertainty
                                          1. Reflective thinkers: Maintain that knowledge is actively constructed, and claims of knowledge must be viewed in relation to the context in which they were generated
                                          2. Peoples assumptions about what and how something can be known provides a lens that shapes how individuals frame a problem and how they justify their beliefs
                                            1. How can you become a reflective thinker when there is no clear answer to the problem
                                            2. Kolb's Theory of Learning
                                              1. 1984
                                                1. Dicussion of learning styles and the relationship between learning and development, and implication of learning styles for higher education
                                                  1. Accommodator: Action oriented, at ease with people, trial and error problem solving
                                                    1. Diverger: People and feeling oriented
                                                      1. Converger: Prefers technical tasks over social/interpersonal settings
                                                        1. Assimilator: Emphasizes ideas rather than people
                                                        2. Student are entering university with divers backgrounds and working effectively with them in the classroom is important. Kolb was looking at ways to better understand who the student is
                                                          1. Enhances the educators ability to provide challenging and supportive environments in which help the student learn and devlopme
                                                          2. Integrative Theories (Ecological Approaches)
                                                            1. Human Ecology
                                                              1. 1955
                                                                1. Represents a way of looking at the "interaction and interdependence of humans with the environment.
                                                                  1. Understanding a family or other social unit as an ecosystem
                                                                    1. Located in a nested context of the human built environment
                                                                      1. A natural physical-biological environment
                                                                      2. It lays the foundation for understanding college students using ecological approaches which was taken from general ecology and was adapted
                                                                        1. Used to understand growth and development with applied fields of family studies social work and health professionls
                                                                        2. Developmental Ecology
                                                                          1. 1979
                                                                            1. Focuses attention on the individuals rather than the cultures in which they are embedded.
                                                                              1. Process: Encompasses particular forms of interaction between organism and environment.
                                                                                1. Person component in conjunction with process provides a greater understanding of how the PPCT model shines light on what is going on in the how and what of the person-environment interaction
                                                                                  1. Context: Focus of empirical and theoretical inquiry
                                                                                    1. Time: This element has been taken away from the ecological systems model but it is still clear today
                                                                                      1. Microsystem: Is a pattern of activites, roles, and interpersonal realtion that invite permit or inhibit engagement in sustained progressively more complex interaction the immediate environment.
                                                                                        1. Mesosystem: comprises linkages and process taking place between two or more settings containing the developing person
                                                                                          1. Exosystem: does not contain the devloping individual but exert an influence on his or her environment through interactions with the microsystem
                                                                                            1. Macrosystem: Consists of the overreaching pattern of the micro-meso-and excosystem characteristic of a given culture
                                                                                      2. Urie Bronfenbrenner
                                                                                        1. Considers interactions between individuals and their developmental context. It helps explain how outcomes occurs as an interactions of a persons environment
                                                                                          1. Assuming that development cannot be accounted for by individual attributes, but they are developed with connections between individuals outcomes and environmental context
                                                                                          2. Campus Ecology
                                                                                            1. 1974
                                                                                              1. The study of the relationship between the student and the campus environment
                                                                                                1. It helps understand the student when looking at the ecology of a students campus environment
                                                                                                  1. Transactional relationship between students campus environment and them
                                                                                                2. Theory
                                                                                                  1. Year
                                                                                                    1. Purpose
                                                                                                      1. Definition
                                                                                                        1. Stages of Thory
                                                                                                          1. Extra Information
                                                                                                  2. Cass's Identity Development Model
                                                                                                    1. 1979
                                                                                                      1. It describes the disruptive influences of heterosexism on identity development of gays and lesbians and the eventual integration into a positive identity
                                                                                                        1. 1. Identity Confusion: Socialized and playing a heterosexual role, but experiencing same-sex feelings and a sense of "Differentness."
                                                                                                          1. 2. Identity Comparison: Compare his or her own heterosexual message/ portrays/ self-deception to increase realization of her or her gay/lesbian proclivities
                                                                                                            1. 3. Identity Tolerance: To accept their gay/lesbian identity and progressively move away from the heterosexual world
                                                                                                              1. 4. Identity Acceptance: Have a greater contact with the gay community, develops friendships with LGBTs and tolerance moves to acceptance.
                                                                                                                1. 5. Identity Pride: experiences increasingly positive feelings with a strong sense of identification with the gay community and to attain a sense of heightened sociopolitical awareness
                                                                                                                  1. 6. Identity Synthesis: The "us" versus "them" mentality begins to disapear with the realization that many heterosexuals are understanding and valuable allies in the struggle for equality
                                                                                                                  2. Sexual-orientation identity development models descrive a process of movement from dealing with heterosexism to liberation
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