The Cell

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Created by mae1 about 6 years ago
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MCAT Prep: Biology

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The Cell
  1. Cell Theory
    1. all living things are composed of cells
      1. the cell is the basic unit of life
        1. cells arise only from pre-existing cells
          1. cells carry genetic information in the form of DNA, this genetic material is passed from parent to daughter
          2. Eukaryotic Cells
            1. Can be unicellular or multicellular
              1. Contain a true nucleus
                1. Major organelles: Golgi, ER, ribosomes, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, lysosome, nuclear membrane, cell membrane, nucleus, nucleolus, centrioles, endocytotic vesicle
                  1. Organelles are membrane bound which allows for compartmentalization
                    1. Membranes consist of a phospholipid bilayer
                    2. Nucleus
                      1. contains all genetic material necessary for replication of cell
                        1. surrounded by nuclear membrane which has pores that allow for selective two-way exchange
                          1. rRNA is synthesized in the nucleolus
                          2. Mitochondrion
                            1. contains own genes and replicates independent of nucleus via binary fission
                              1. start apoptosis by by releasing enzymes from ETC
                                1. Makes ATP from TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
                                2. Lysosome
                                  1. contain hydrolytic enzymes that break down many different cellular waste products
                                    1. Can start apoptosis by releasing hydrolytic enzymes
                                    2. ER
                                      1. Rough
                                        1. studded with ribosomes which translate proteins directly in to RER lumen
                                        2. Smooth
                                          1. lipid synthesis, detoxification, transports proteins from RER to Golgi
                                        3. golgi
                                          1. modifies cellular products from RER by adding carb., phosphate, or sulfate groups
                                            1. also adds signals to direct cell. products to different parts of the cell
                                            2. Peroxisomes
                                              1. Contains hydrogen peroxide- break down fatty acids in B oxidation
                                              2. cytoskeleton
                                                1. Provides structure to cell
                                                  1. microfilaments
                                                    1. made of actin
                                                      1. can use ATP to generate force for movement by interacting with myosin
                                                        1. divides matter between daughter cells and forms the cleavage furrow
                                                        2. microtubules
                                                          1. made of tubulin
                                                            1. provides pathways for kinesin and dynein
                                                              1. composes flagella and cilia
                                                                1. cilia: move materials along cell surface
                                                                  1. Flagella: Move cells
                                                                  2. centrioles: organizing centers for mictotubules
                                                                  3. intermediate filaments
                                                                    1. cell to cell adhesion
                                                                      1. anchors organelles
                                                                    2. Tissue
                                                                      1. epithelial: covers body and lines cavities, provides protection against pathogen invasion
                                                                        1. parenchyma=function of organs, polarized
                                                                          1. simple: one layer
                                                                            1. stratified: multiple layers
                                                                              1. pseudostratified: looks stacked, but isn't
                                                                                1. cuboidal: cubed shaped
                                                                                  1. columnar: long and thin
                                                                                    1. squamous: flat and scale like
                                                                                    2. connective tissue: supports body and provides framework for epithelial cells to carry out function
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