Psychology

Sam Foss
Mind Map by Sam Foss, updated more than 1 year ago
Sam Foss
Created by Sam Foss about 6 years ago
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Psychology
  1. What is Psychology?
    1. "Psychology is the study of the human mind and its behaviours and functions." (American Psychological Association,2015)
      1. Cognitive Psychology
        1. Jean Piaget
          1. Believed that there were four stages in cognitive development.
            1. Sensory-Motor: This stage takes place from birth to the age of 2. In this stage your senses and reflexes develop very quickly.
              1. Preoperational: This stage takes place at ages 2 through 7. In this stage the child is starting to put meaning to symbols and objects and understand concepts such as language. During this stage the child begins to question things as he/she observes the world around them.
                1. Concrete Operations: Takes place at ages 7 through 11. The child can carry out mental operations and now has given meaning to things seen in his/her everyday life. Understands the positive and negative repercussions of different actions.
                  1. Formal Operations: Takes place from ages 11 to 16. The child can now think of things they may not know for certain such as the future or the hypothetical. Instead of being just taught, now they think of things that are not facts because nobody knows them for certain.
                    1. These four stages reflect to human behaviour due to their direct roles in our lives. Each takes place at different points in our lives and as we grow, we shift from stage to stage in cognitive development.
                    2. What is Cognitive Psychology?
                      1. "A branch of psychology concerned with mental processes (as perception, thinking, learning, and memory) especially with respect to the internal events occurring between sensory stimulation and the overt expression of behavior." (Merriam-Webster, 2015)
                    3. Behavioral Psychology
                      1. What is Behavioural Psychology?
                        1. "Behavioral psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on the study and alteration of people's behaviors, including their actions, emotions and thoughts." (Learn.org, 2015)
                        2. John B. Watson
                          1. Studied the behaviours of animals and observed their different emotions based off of the meaning they gave to certain objects. Considered to be the work that was the base to understanding behaviour in humans.
                            1. For example animals such as dogs who associate the sound of clanking metal bowls with the positive thought of food being given.
                                1. This theory reflects human behaviour due to humans also giving meaning to actions and items. For example when someone pouts then we associate it with the emotion of sadness or we may think something is bothering them.
                                  1. There is a popular test that many dog owners have done which is to put a towel on the dog's head and see how long it takes for it to get it off. This is supposed to test it's intelligece. The dog see in this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qpfxhDpKvBA simply does not know what to do when the towel is placed on his head. This could be because the dog associates darkness with sleep and is confused because it was just light out.
                                  2. B.F. Skinner
                                    1. Believed in cause and effect and that emotions are responses to events, actions or other behaviours. Skinner it into four response/consequence types based on and affecting emotion and behaviours. Skinner used schools and their students to study these concepts.
                                      1. Positive Reinforcement: Person understands through repetition that their action was good and should be continued.
                                        1. Remove Unpleasant Stimulus: Taking away something unpleasant to reinforce something positive. For example: Telling students that if work well then they will not receive homework.
                                          1. Recieve Unpleasant Stimulus: Using something unpleasant when certain behaviour is displayed. For example: A child gets angry and rips his friend's paper and the teacher gives him detention.
                                            1. Withhold Pleasant Stimulus: Pleasant stimulus not given until what is needed or wanted to be done, is done. For example: Do not give child dessert until vegetables are eaten.
                                              1. This influences our behaviour because it explains how with every action, there will always be a reaction, so by conforming to this, it affects the way we behave.
                                                1. John B. Watson
                                              2. Psychoanalysis
                                                1. What is Psycholanalysis?
                                                  1. "A method of analyzing psychic phenomena and treating emotional disorders that involves treatment sessions during which the patient is encouraged to talk freely about personal experiences and especially about early childhood and dreams" (Merriam-Webster, 2015)
                                                  2. Sigmund Freud
                                                      1. Freud focused his work on the unconscious mind and also personality. He split the personality into three parts.
                                                        1. ID: The ID is the most apparent at a young age. This is because the ID acts on impulse with no regard as to the reality of things. It does what it wants and focuses solely on its wants. For example: Babies cry when they are hungry, thirsty, or desire attention. When they want something they simply cry and scream until they get it. Of course this isn't the reality of things. If an adult were to do this they would simply be ignored but when you are an adult you use different methods to get your way.
                                                          1. This relates to a popular social experiment called the, 'Marshmellow test" this shows how the ID is causing all these kids to eat their marshmellow instead of wait. They want the marshmellow right at that instant so they eat it. Later on as they develop they will realize, waiting is the more beneficial option. Watch video here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yo4WF3cSd9Q
                                                          2. Super Ego: This is what Freud describes as our sense of right and wrong. this part of our personality is the power struggle between our morals and pleasure.
                                                            1. Ego: As a person develops they begin to understand that things may not always go their way and that other people have wants and desires just like them.
                                                              1. This theory reflects on human behaviour because these three components work together in our lives and are the reason why we act and behave the way we do.
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