Singapore's Population Policies

Angel Lyn
Mind Map by Angel Lyn, updated more than 1 year ago
Angel Lyn
Created by Angel Lyn about 6 years ago
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Chapter 2: Singapore's Population Policies

Resource summary

Singapore's Population Policies
  1. Why the need for population growth?
    1. Declining birth rate since 1980s
      1. Fertility rate 1.82 per woman in 1980
        1. Not enough to replace population
        2. Caused by
          1. Early policies to reduce birth rate
            1. Increased costs of living
              1. People marrying later due to career
            2. Need for economic development
              1. Cannot produce enough talented people
                1. Unable to grow economy
                  1. Unattractive to multinational companies
                    1. Larger and cheaper labour market available in China
                      1. Small consumer market
                  2. Defense
                    1. Fewer men for NS
                      1. Weak defense force
                        1. Open to external threats
                      2. Ageing population
                        1. Effects
                          1. More resources needed to take care of elderly
                            1. Healthcare: hospitals, clinics
                              1. Facilities: lifts, wheelchair ramps
                                1. Social services: homes for the aged
                                2. Strain on working population

                                  Annotations:

                                  • Workforce has to pay increased taxes
                                3. Solutions
                                  1. "Many Helping Hands" approach
                                    1. Individual
                                      1. Maintain healthy lifestyle

                                        Annotations:

                                        • - Watching diet and eating healthy - Exercising regularly
                                        1. Plan early for old age

                                          Annotations:

                                          • - Attend talks on financial planning - Read up on retirement options
                                        2. Family
                                          1. Senior Citizens' Week

                                            Annotations:

                                            • - Held in November - Encourages elderly to stay active in their families and communities - Promotes a positive attitude towards ageing and the aged
                                            1. Grandparents' Week

                                              Annotations:

                                              • - Held in November - Show appreciation for the elderly
                                            2. Community
                                              1. Subsidies for voluntary welfare organizations

                                                Annotations:

                                                • - Home Nursing Foundation for Elders - Encourage community members to help look after senior citizens
                                                1. Provide social and emotional support

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  • - Free health checks - Organise recreational activities
                                                2. Government
                                                  1. Tax relief

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • Tax relief can be claimed for: - taking care of elderly family members - contributing to CPF accounts of elderly family members - grandparents who look after grandchildren
                                                    1. Tribunal for the Maintenance of Parents

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • Elderly over 60 and unable to support themselves can get help to claim financial support from their children
                                                      1. CPF

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • - Special Account: retirement, emergency and investment - Medisave Account: medical fees - Retirement Account: save money for old age
                                                        1. Public housing schemes

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • Housing grants for buying flats near to parents
                                                      2. Senior citizens as assets
                                                        1. Jobs for senior citizens
                                                  2. How to encourage population growth?
                                                    1. Graduate Mothers Scheme
                                                      1. Who?
                                                        1. BY PM Lee Kuan Yew
                                                          1. FOR female graduates
                                                          2. When?
                                                            1. Started 1984
                                                              1. Withdrawn 1985
                                                                1. Unpopular among people
                                                              2. What?
                                                                1. Parents with high level of education were thought to produce smarter children
                                                                  1. Female graduates encouraged to have children so new workforce will be more educated
                                                                2. Three or More if You can Afford it
                                                                  1. When?
                                                                    1. Started 1987
                                                                    2. What?
                                                                      1. Encourage families who can afford it to have more children

                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                        • Prevent social problems that arise when families cannot cope financially
                                                                        1. Increase birth rate to 2.1
                                                                        2. How?
                                                                          1. Allow use of Medisave to cover delivery charges of first 3 children
                                                                          2. Result?
                                                                            1. Limited success
                                                                              1. Having children in SG still too expensive

                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                • - Hiring of foreign helpers - Childcare / school fees - Tuition fees
                                                                                1. Medisave not enough as medical care is costly
                                                                                  1. SGeans prefer to spend money on themselves rather than start a family
                                                                                  2. Birth rate fell to 1.24 in 2004
                                                                                2. Other pro-family measures
                                                                                  1. Equalised family benefits

                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                    • Both parents can claim medical benefits for children from their companies
                                                                                    1. Grandparent caregiver relief

                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                      • $3000 tax relief for grandparents who take care of grandchildren
                                                                                      1. 5-day work week for Civil Service

                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                        • To promote work-life balance
                                                                                        1. Extended maternity leave

                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                          • From 8 to 12 weeks
                                                                                        2. Attracting foreign talent
                                                                                          1. What?
                                                                                            1. Attract foreign talent to boost quality of workforce
                                                                                              1. Foreign companies create more jobs
                                                                                                1. Boost creativity
                                                                                                2. How?
                                                                                                  1. Relaxing immigration policies
                                                                                                    1. Assistance to help foreigners relocate to SG
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