Part 1 Study Guide

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Constructions Of Deviance Part 1 Chapters 1-5. Study Guide

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Part 1 Study Guide
  1. What is Deviance?

    Annotations:

    • Violation of social norms
    1. What are Norms?

      Annotations:

      • Following everyday rules that the general populations would agree with, like showing up to work properly dressed and not in your pajamas). 
      1. What are William Sumner's three types of norms?

        Annotations:

        • Folways, Mores, and Laws
        1. Define all three.

          Annotations:

          • Folkways - norms that come from customs/ traditions. like eating a steak with a fork and knife, not just by grabbing the piece of meat & eating it with your hands.
          • Mores threaten social order. They are norms based off traditions such as not having children out of wedlock, marrying within your race.
          • Laws - Rules that the general population must follow, breaking these norms can lead to jail time such as theft, rape, and murder. 
          1. Are crime and Deviance the same thing?

            Annotations:

            • According to Smith and Pollack (1976) pg. 12 in our books. Crime and deviance are not one in the same. There is deviance that is not criminal. Such as having a child out of wedlock is not considered a punishment punishable by law (like it was in the past). 
    2. Kai T. Erikson's Theory on Deviance?

      Annotations:

      • Erikson suggests that the very institutions and agencies mandated to manage deviance reinforce it. In other words the groups who are suppose to correct and make it better are the ones who make it worse
      1. What theory do Alex Heckert and Druan Maria Heckert share?

        Annotations:

        • Heckert and Heckert suggest that people do not alway react to deviance in a negative way, but admire it. Like a person who does extreme sports is a deviant because he is doing something out of the norm, but something like  that is admired not frowned upon.
        1. What are Heckerts' four types of deviance? List examples of each.

          Annotations:

          • 1. Negative deviance-  Being bizarre, irresponsible, deceitful.
          • 2. Positive deviance being discreet, cooperating, righteous, pacifist gentle, kind.
          • 3. rate busting being uptight, "butt kisser",  a "hater", negative and mean.
          • 4. deviance admiration being a rebel, investigator, adventurous, charming,  
        2. Howard S. Becker's theory?

          Annotations:

          • Becker suggests that the essence of deviance is contained not within individuals behavior, but in the response others have to their behavior. 
          1. Richard Quinney's Theory?

            Annotations:

            • Builds on Beckers approach and suggests that deviance is based on the views of those who are in power to make and enforce them.
            • The people in power get to decide what is deviant based on what they feel threatens their existence or class. If I commit a crime that they consider a threat I will be punished, but if one of their own commits the same crime they get a slap on the wrist.
            1. Dominant Class is in control

              Annotations:

              • Quinney believes that there are 2 groups of society: The rulers and the ruled. The definition of crime changes based on how it benefits the dominant class. 
              1. What are the 6 Social realities of Crime?
                1. 1. Official Definition

                  Annotations:

                  • Rules set my a group of people that are part of the dominant class and are part of a politically organized society.
                  • crim is not based on behavior but on judgement on the actions based on characteristics of others.
                  1. 2. Formulating definitions

                    Annotations:

                    • definitions of crime are based on the behaviors that conflict with the interest of the dominant class
                    1. 3. Applying Definitions

                      Annotations:

                      • Definitions of crime  are applied by the class that has the power to shape the enforcement and administration of criminal law
                      • dominant class applies the definition of crime based on their best interest
                      1. 4. How behavior patterns develop in relation

                        Annotations:

                        • behavior patterns are structured in relation to definition of crime, and within this context people engage in actions that have relative probabilities of being defined as criminal
                        • example once behavior patterns for a crime become established it gives a relation to crime.
                        1. 6. Constructing an Ideology

                          Annotations:

                          • an ideology of crime is contsructed and diffused by the dominant class to secure its hegemony
                          1. 5. Constructing the Social Reality

                            Annotations:

                            • The social reality of crime is constructed by the formulation and application of definitions of crime, the development of behavior pattern in relation to these definitions, and the construction of an ideology of crime. 
                          2. What is an example of Quinney's theory?

                            Annotations:

                            • White kids in rich neighborhoods are more likely to get a slap on the wrist, and African American kids from neighborhoods where crime high may be punish for the same crime the white kids in the other neighborhood did. 
                        2. Anne Hendershott's Theory?

                          Annotations:

                          • believes that we all agree on what is right and wrong, and suggests that we should adopt a sin-based model. In other words that sins should also be considered laws, and if we commit sins they should be punishable by law. Hendershott is old school. 
                          • NOTE: Hendershott believes that committing a sin is breaking a law that has not yet been written.
                          1. Key Terms

                            Annotations:

                            • Create Flash cards for all Key terms.
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