Second Language Acquisition: Processes & Theories

Mind Map by kathyc, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by kathyc over 6 years ago


Mind map about the acquisition of language for second language learners

Resource summary

Second Language Acquisition: Processes & Theories
  1. Behaviorist Theory
    1. B.F. Skinner
      1. Predicted that any human behavior could be learned through a process of stimulus, response, and positive/negative reinforcement (S-R-R)
        1. The object was to make the desired behavior become a habit performed spontaneously
          1. This process, according to behaviorists, applied to the way people learned language as well as other human behavior
        2. Classroom Application: This is similar to the social interaction approach to language acquisition. This is the way ELLs learn language through behavioral interactions. Such as students understanding conceptual terms such as love through behavior.
        3. Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
          1. Noam Chomsky
            1. Approach focused almost entirely on the abstract "deep structure" of individuals' native language
              1. Child's innate ability to aquire and use language
                1. Classroom Application: This relates to ELLs ability to naturally learn a 2LA. They are able to recognize words in their language that mean the same thing in their 2LA.
                2. Adaptive Control of Thought (ACT)
                  1. R.C. Anderson
                    1. Intelligence is the gathering together and fine-tuning of many small units of knowledge that in total produce complex thinking.
                      1. Human knowledge: Declarative or Procedural
                        1. Declarative Knowledge: learned rapidly and stored in long-term memory through images and schema
                          1. Procedural Knowledge: the gradual process by which a person learns how to do something successfully
                          2. Classroom Application: This could potentially be homework for ELLs. They could take home flashcards or complete online review sessions in order to continue practice with concepts/terms learned in class over their 2LA.
                          3. Social Interaction/Sociocultural Theory
                            1. Vygotsky, Gass, Swain
                              1. Gass: Social interactionists focused on the language learning context and "how learners use their linguistic environment to build their knowledge of the second language"
                                1. Vygotsky: emphasized the role of the social environment on children's learning
                                  1. Swain: "comprehensible output" in meaningful conversations is necessary for successful second language acquisition
                                    1. learners talk in their 2nd language and notice a "gap", a difference, between their knowledge of the 2nd language and what they want to/meed to say....having noticed the gap, they may now modify their 2nd language speech. They can begin to think about the language and begin to internalize the way the 2nd language works.
                                    2. Classroom Application: This is the way ELLs learn a 2LA through peer interaction. Through being conversational with peers students learn social use of language and develop vocabulary too.
                                    3. Audiolingual Approach
                                      1. Northern Linguists studying Native American Language Acquisition
                                        1. developed in the early 20th c. as part of a project to record and document all of the Native American languages still in use
                                          1. Because Native American cultures were primarily oral, linguists' language learning emphasis shifted from the written to the spoken word
                                          2. Classroom Application: This is the way ELLs learn language just through listening to either me or their peers talk.
                                          3. Natural Approach
                                            1. Steven Krashen
                                              1. Five Hypotheses
                                                1. 1. There is a "natural order" for learning the structure of an 2nd langauge
                                                  1. 2. There is a distinction between language acquisition and language learning
                                                    1. 3. There is a function for a "monitor"/"editor" in the production of the 2nd. language
                                                      1. 4. The necessary and sufficient cause of 2nd language is "comprehensive input"
                                                        1. 5. An "affective filter" plays a critical role in how well and how fast a 2nd language is acquired.
                                                        2. Developed from ideas of Chomsky
                                                          1. Classroom Application: The natural process by which ELLs learn a 2LA...where they progressively learn vocab and work towards becoming conversational.
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