Second Language Acquisition Processes and Theories

Will Haynes
Mind Map by Will Haynes, updated more than 1 year ago
Will Haynes
Created by Will Haynes almost 6 years ago
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5 SLA processes and theories.

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Second Language Acquisition Processes and Theories
  1. Input Hypothesis
    1. Developed by Krashen as part of his Monitor Model
      1. The belief that we acquire language in the simple way of comprehensible messages. Just hearing a language is not as effective as seeing it presented with models messages that can be understood.
        1. In the classroom, teachers can apply this theory to their instruction by making sure to use models and kinesthetic lessons where an English learner not only hears the language but can comprehend the message through pictures, symbols, models, and etc.
          1. BICS vs. CALP
            1. Proposed by Jim Cummins
              1. A distinction should be made between basic interpersonal communicative skills and cognitive academic language proficiency. BICS is an area of relatively quick fluency and conversation that a student can pick up where CALPS is the reading and writing that has a longer trajectory to master. Just because students can hold mostly fluent conversations does not mean they are at the level where a educational test can be given without bias.
                1. Often times English learners are thought to have learning disabilities when they struggle with reading and writing though they speak fluently. Teachers should note this distinction in language acquisition levels so as to not rush to conclusions that a student has a learning disability but instead work with that student to build literacy in the second language.
                  1. Universal Grammar
                    1. Proposed by Noam Chomsky
                      1. Chomsky proposes that all languages share a foundation of innate building blocks. Verbs, nouns, adjectives, and etc. create the foundation needed to understand any language. He upholds the belief that children do not need to be taught language as they can pick up the language through the broken bits and pieces that they hear and apply the rules of verbs, adjectives, nouns, and the like to interpret which words forms sentences.
                        1. This theory could implicate that educators need not focus on teaching a language to some extent but instead focus on immersing the student in the language so they can use the founding rules of their native language to understand the sentence formations of the second language.
                          1. Interactionist Model
                            1. Developed by Long in 1980
                              1. The interactionist model promotes native to non-native, peer to peer conversation as a means to enhance language proficiency. Peer conversation exposes a second language learner to the language and provides more opportunity for the language learner to hear and practice using the language.
                                1. Teachers should promote conversation in the classroom. Intentionally pairing students will not only give the language learner more opportunities to grow but will give the native speaker an opportunity to learn about the culture of his or her peer. restricting language learners to specific tracks or classes without native speakers will stifle opportunities to learn new language formulas and grammar found in native conversation.
                                  1. Semiotics
                                    1. Discussed by Chandler (2005), Kress and Van Leeuwen (1995), and Scollon and Scollon (2003)
                                      1. Second language acquisition based on signs and symbols. Different visual icons and symbols carry different meanings across languages. Semiotics is a perspective of learning a language by understanding its signs, symbols, icons, and etc. and what they mean.
                                        1. In the classroom, music, collages, drawings, animation, and other visual devices can be used to display meaning. Students can use these tools to identify messages and display comprehension of concepts.
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