The Immune System 1

Mind Map by rachel.meuwly, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by rachel.meuwly almost 5 years ago


Innate immunity and the major characteristics of adaptive immunity

Resource summary

The Immune System 1
1 Innate Immunity
1.1 Vertebrates
1.1.1 Barrier Defences Epithelial tissues Body secretions
1.1.2 Cellular Innate Defences Phagocytic cells Toll-like receptors (TLR) Bind to fragments of molecules characteristic of pathogens (which are normally absent from vertebrates) Engulf and destroy pathogens w/ gases & lysozymes Neutrophils Attracted by signals from infected tissues Macrophages Large phagocytic cells Dendritic Cells Stimulate adaptive immunity Eosinophils Defence against multicellular invaders Natural Killer Cells Detect abnormal surface proteins of virus-infected and cancerous cells Release chemicals Interferons Proteins secreted by virus-infected cells which induce nearby unaffected cells to inhibit viral reproductiion Complement System Proteins that are activated by microbe surface components, resulting in lysis of invading cells Inflammatory Response Mast Cells Histomenes Vasodialation and more permeable blood vessels Delivers anti-microbial peptides
1.2 Invertebrates
1.2.1 Exoskeleton as a first line of defence
1.2.2 Lysozymes - break down bacterial cell walls
1.2.3 Haemocytes Phagocytosis - the cellular ingestion and digestion of foreign substances Antimicrobial peptides Disrupt plasma membranes
2 Adaptive Immunity
2.1 Lymphocytes
2.1.1 T Cells Mature in thymus Receptors Alpha and Beta chains Bind only to antigen fragments presented on the surface of host cells Antigen fragments presented by MHC (Major histocompatibility complex) molecules
2.1.2 B Cells Mature in bone marrow Receptors Light chains and heavy chains B cell antigen recptors (surface-bound) and antibodies Antibodies - same Y-shape, but secreted rather than surface bound
2.1.3 Antigen Ellicits response from B & T cells Antigen receptors Binds to the antigen Highly specific - binds to one part of one molecule of a particular pathogen Variable regions and constant regions Allows for great diversity Epitope Accesible portion of of antigen that binds to receptor
2.2 Self-tolerance
2.2.1 Distinguish from self and non-self
2.2.2 As lymphocytes mature, they are tested for self-reactivity
2.2.3 Defective cells undergo apoptosis
2.3 Proliferation
2.3.1 Clonal Selection An encounter with an antigen selects which lymphocytes (and hence receptor) will divide to produce clones Effector cells Short-lived clones that immediately defend against the antigen/pathogen Memory Cells Long-lived clones that give rise to effector cells if the same antigen is encountered again later
2.4 Immunological Memory
2.4.1 Primary immune response Production of effector cells during first exposure
2.4.2 Secondary immune response Immune response produced upon 2nd exposure Relies on memory cells Upon 2nd exposure, memory cells specific for that antigen enable rapid formation of clones of effector cells
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