Growth and Development in Children

l.j.m.thornton
Mind Map by l.j.m.thornton, updated more than 1 year ago
l.j.m.thornton
Created by l.j.m.thornton over 6 years ago
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A mind map showing the affects of growth and development on children

Resource summary

Growth and Development in Children
  1. How does growth occur?
    1. Growth Hormone released from hypothalamus and pituitary
      1. Tissues will reproduce
        1. The skeleton will grow
        2. Growth rates
          1. First years of growth = trunk length has the fastest growth rate
            1. From then till puberty = legs have the fastest growth rate (lower leg problems – ankle and knee)
              1. Puberty till full size = spine catches up (producing lower back problems)
            2. The body can become disproportionate
            3. Phases of development
              1. Gains head control = 3 months
                1. Lying will grasp foot = 5 months
                  1. Sit with straight back = 6 months
                    1. Pulls to standing = 9 months
                      1. Walk = 12-15 months
                        1. Stands of one leg with arms folded = 4 years
                          1. Hop = 5 years
                          2. Height and Weight
                            1. Boys
                              1. Puberty = 10 – 14 years
                                1. Adult height = 18 years
                                  1. Weight gain mainly muscle mass
                                    1. Increase in shoulder width = increased anchorage = increased strength
                                    2. Girls
                                      1. Puberty = 9 – 12 years
                                        1. Adult height = 16 years
                                          1. Weight gain mainly fat mass and less muscle
                                            1. Increase in pelvic width = lower centre of gravity = balance
                                          2. What is a growth spurt?
                                            1. A rapid period of cell production at the growth plate
                                              1. Results in an increase in bone length and therefore height
                                                1. Can occur at different ages and for a varied length of time
                                                  1. Most common 0-5 years and 11-14 years
                                                    1. Associated problems
                                                      1. Muscle and soft tissues – do not grow causing them to stretch and adapt
                                                        1. Pain – joints under more tension/pain in bones
                                                          1. Balance and coordination impaired
                                                            1. Performance impaired
                                                          2. Sport
                                                            1. Resistance and muscle group training
                                                              1. Post-pubescent – will respond with increase in muscle mass
                                                                1. Pre-pubescent – will not increase muscle mass. Will respond with neurological adaptations (muscle fibre recruitment and motor coordination)
                                                                2. Guidelines
                                                                  1. Children should do a minimum of 60 mins moderate – intense physical activity each day (DH 2004)
                                                                    1. Physical activity in England is estimated to cost £8.2 bil a year (DH 2004)
                                                                      1. A sedentary lifestyle is also estimated to cause 54,000 premature deaths per annum (dept for sport 2002)
                                                                        1. Girls are less likely to meet targets
                                                                          1. Children walking or cycling to school has fallen significantly
                                                                            1. Fear of children playing outside
                                                                          2. Common Pathologies
                                                                            1. Osgood Schlatters
                                                                              1. Osteochondritis of tibial tubercle
                                                                                1. Related to overuse and growth
                                                                                  1. age 11-15, boys > girls
                                                                                    1. Treatment
                                                                                      1. rest
                                                                                        1. muscle stretches
                                                                                          1. electrotherapy
                                                                                            1. immobilisation
                                                                                          2. Sinding Larsens
                                                                                            1. Osteochondritis of ole of patella (tendon pulls on patella)
                                                                                              1. Related to growth and overuse, can occur in adults
                                                                                                1. Age 9 - 13, boys > girls
                                                                                                  1. Treatment
                                                                                                    1. Rest
                                                                                                      1. Stretches
                                                                                                        1. Surgery
                                                                                                      2. Severs Disease
                                                                                                        1. Traction apophysis (pull of Achilles)
                                                                                                          1. 9 - 12 years
                                                                                                            1. Can be linked to other diseases e.g. RA
                                                                                                              1. Treatment
                                                                                                                1. Rest
                                                                                                                  1. Stretches
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