3: WHAT DO WE SHOW?

Johanna Pyykkö
Mind Map by Johanna Pyykkö, updated more than 1 year ago
Johanna Pyykkö
Created by Johanna Pyykkö over 6 years ago
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Lecture week 3 readings

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3: WHAT DO WE SHOW?
  1. Non- verbal behaviour and communication
    1. History:18th -19th century: "natural languages" > symbolic communication. Importance of immeadiate situaitonal facotrs: proximal/ situational influences & distal/ historical influences
      1. Style:
        1. Personal idiom
          1. Instrumental aspects of action
            1. Expressive aspects of action: personalized (e.g. voice or signature)
            2. Skill
              1. (Complex, coordinated motor acts) acquired from environment by practicing
            3. Study of NVB
              1. Knapp: 7 dimensions of NVB:
                1. 1. Kinesics (body language)
                  1. 2. Paralanguage (content free vocalization)
                    1. 3. Physical contact (touching)
                      1. 4. Proxemics
                        1. 5. Physical characteristics of people
                          1. 6. Artefacts (cloths, perfume, jewelry)
                            1. 7. Environmental factors (setting)
                            2. Context is important!
                              1. Social climate: stressful/ relaxed situations
                                1. Formal (less NVB) / Informal setting (more NVB)
                                  1. Physical/ social envirnoment
                                  2. Ekman & Friesen: 3 categories
                                    1. USAGE: all circumstances (setting, emotinal tone, relationship)
                                      1. ORIGIN: root/ location of NVB ( nervous system, culture)
                                        1. CODING: meaning of the NVB
                                          1. Extrinsic: are something else than what they represent (e.g. thumbs-up)
                                            1. Intrinsic: same as representation (eg. playful form of aggression = aggr.)
                                            2. + 5 categories of behavioural acts
                                              1. Emblems (culturally specific)
                                                1. Illustrator: "it was this wide.."
                                                  1. Regulator: head nods, eye contact etc that regulate conversation flow. CULTURE SPECIFIC!
                                                    1. Adapters: object or self- manipulation (behavioural habits like scratching the head, folidng arms, pencil- tapping on table)
                                                      1. Affect displays: facial expressions
                                                        1. 7 universal emorions we are born with!
                                                    2. Encoder (talker) /vs. decoder (listener)
                                                      1. INFORMATIVE ACT
                                                        1. unintentional signal > interpretation
                                                          1. form impressions
                                                        2. COMMUNICATIVE ACT
                                                          1. Intentional: the message content
                                                          2. Encoder can send GOAL DIRECTED or NON-GOAL-DIRECTED SIGNALS
                                                            1. Decoder may interpret them differently
                                                          3. Patterson: 7 basic funtions of NVB:
                                                            1. 1. Providing information
                                                              1. 2. Regulating interactions
                                                                1. 3. Expressing intimacy
                                                                  1. 4. Expressing social control
                                                                    1. 5. Presentation function
                                                                      1. 6. Affect management
                                                                        1. 7. Facilitating service tasks/goals
                                                              2. Exchange of expressions in interaction
                                                                1. 4 classes of factors:
                                                                2. Actor and observer bias: Actors overemphasize situational factors in explaining own behavior, observers overemphasize dispositional factors
                                                                3. Dittmann: 4 channels
                                                                  1. Language
                                                                    1. Facial expressions
                                                                      1. Vocalizations
                                                                        1. Body movements
                                                                    2. Based on communicative channel capacity
                                                                      1. Defined by how much information each of the channels can transmit at any moment
                                                                        1. Channels go from Communicative/discrete to Expressive/continuous
                                                                    3. Mehrabian:
                                                                      1. POSITIVENESS evaluation: > approach or avoid
                                                                        1. POTENCY: status/ social control (cues of posture)
                                                                          1. RESPONSIVENESS: activity cues
                                                                        2. Voluntary & Involuntary Behaviour // Detecting Decpetion
                                                                          1. LIE: a deliberate intention to mislead.
                                                                            1. Darwin: some emotions have universal facial impression > facial muscles can reveal our true emotions involuntarily (we canot control these muscles) > it's hard to hide true emotions

                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                              • Reliable facial muscles: Facial actions that aren´t easily controlled by most people
                                                                              • Leakage of felt emotions: When parts of an expression occur (rapidly), betraying how a person feels even if that person is attempting to conceal their feelings
                                                                              1. Lie continuum:
                                                                              2. Differences between expressed emotions and truly felt emotions
                                                                                1. Morphology
                                                                                  1. the facial expression looks different when emotion is truly felt than when it is faked (different muscle movements)
                                                                                    1. Fake smile: movements associated with fear, sadness or disgust
                                                                                      1. Duchenne smile: sincere smile, Orbicularis Oculi muscles are activated (laughing eyes) + Zygomatic major. Left frontal EEG activation (positive affect)
                                                                                    2. Timing
                                                                                      1. Duration and speed of onset, abruptness
                                                                                        1. Micro facial expressions
                                                                                          1. Fake emotions start and end abruptly and last too long
                                                                                            1. True emotions last ~0.7 to 4 sec.
                                                                                          2. Symmetry
                                                                                            1. Emotions are more intensely expressed on the left side of the face! > Sincere emotions are asymmetrical! (Except happiness)
                                                                                              1. True smiles are more symmetrical
                                                                                            2. Cohesion
                                                                                              1. Facial expression will be consistent with the content of speech
                                                                                                1. The context, usual manner, internal consistency
                                                                                                2. Lying cues: hesitation, changes in emphasis, speech errors and distancing language
                                                                                                  1. Changes in the frequency or tempo of gestures
                                                                                              2. Experiment: Weaknesses: Based on high-stakes lies in laboratory setting with little preparation -> In real world people are more practiced in lies
                                                                                              3. Hand gestures
                                                                                                1. Speech- gesture realtionship: Aid comprehension for the listener
                                                                                                  1. Categories:
                                                                                                    1. Illustrators / Ideational gestures
                                                                                                      1. improve the listener´s attention, recognition, understanding and memory about the content > clarify the content
                                                                                                        1. iconic &metaphoric gestures, related to the semantic content / concurrent speech
                                                                                                        2. Conversational gestures (without relation to semantic content)
                                                                                                          1. rhytmic & cohersive gestures linked to speech structure
                                                                                                          2. Adaptors:
                                                                                                            1. Self-addressed (touch own body)
                                                                                                              1. Object- addressed (contact with objects)
                                                                                                                1. Person -addressed
                                                                                                                  1. associated with anxiety, soemtimes with deception
                                                                                                                2. Experiment
                                                                                                                  1. AIM: how gestures affect the perception of th espeaker and message and persuasion
                                                                                                                    1. DVs: coomunicative effectiveness, composure, comptenece, warmth of speaker and persuasiveness of message
                                                                                                                      1. Results:
                                                                                                                        1. Hand gesture type affected some factors of speaker evaluation, interpersonal perception and judgement
                                                                                                                          1. Ideational gestures are more effective than adaptors (object-addressed and self-addressed)
                                                                                                                            1. speaker seems more competent, has more effective communicaiton style and sending a more persuasive message
                                                                                                                            2. Generally, linked-to-speech gestures (ideational & conversational) influence the message evaluation and judgements about the speaker more than non-linked-to-speech (adaptor) gestures. > Namely, they improve perceived speaker composure
                                                                                                                            3. Weaknesses: (1) using a positive messgae in the manipulatiom, (2) relations among DVs, (3) cross- cultural comparisnon is needed
                                                                                                                            4. can also provide information about the speaker
                                                                                                                              1. e.g. social abilites
                                                                                                                              2. 2 dimensions underlying judgment:
                                                                                                                                1. Warmth, friendliness, sociability
                                                                                                                                  1. Agency, competence, efficacy
                                                                                                                                  2. Communication style is a way to affect perceptions of speaker´s features
                                                                                                                                    1. Nonverbal characteristics inluence the perceptions of credibility, persuasiveness, competency or effectiveness of the speaker
                                                                                                                                      1. NV styles also influence likeablesness, competence, powerfulness, anxiety...
                                                                                                                                        1. NVB: hihg speech volume and speech rate, high eye contact > liking > persuasiveness
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